A condensed history and theoretical development of lattice-gas automata in the Boltzmann limit is presented. This is provided as background to set up the context for understanding the implementation of the lattice-gas method on two parallel supercomputers: the MIT cellular automata machine CAM-8 and the Connection Machine CM-5. The macroscopic limit of two-dimensional fluids is tested by simulating the Rayleigh-B\'enard convective instability, Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability, and the Von Karman vortex shedding instability. Performance of the two machines in terms of both site update rate and maximum problem size are comparable. The CAM-8, being a low-cost desktop machine, demonstrates the potential of special-purpose digital hardware.