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Physics  2007 

Black Hole Evaporation and Generalized 2nd Law with Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics

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In general, when a black hole evaporates, there arises a net energy flow from black hole into its outside environment due to Hawking radiation and energy accretion onto black hole. The existence of energy flow means that the thermodynamic state of the whole system, which consists of a black hole and its environment, is in a nonequilibrium state. To know the detail of evaporation process, the nonequilibrium effects of energy flow should be taken into account. The nonequilibrium nature of black hole evaporation is a challenging topic including issues of not only black hole physics but also nonequilibrium physics. Using the nonequilibrium thermodynamics which has been formulated recently, this report shows: (1) the self-gravitational effect of black hole which appears as its negative heat capacity guarantees the validity of generalized 2nd law without entropy production inside the outside environment, (2) the nonequilibrium effect of energy flow tends to shorten the evaporation time (life time) of black hole, and consequently specific nonequilibrium phenomena are suggested. Finally a future direction of this study is commented.


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