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Physics  1993 

Density Patterns in Granular Media

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Abstract:

Recent experiments by Baxter et al. showed the existence of density waves in granular material flowing out of a hopper. We show, using Molecular Dynamics Simulations, that this effect is a consequence of static friction and find that these density fluctuations follow a $1/f$ spectrum. The effect is enhanced when the opening angle of the hopper decreases.

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