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Physics  2009 

The 50% advanced information rule of the quantum algorithms

DOI: 10.1007/s10773-009-0031-0

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Abstract:

The oracle chooses a function out of a known set of functions and gives to the player a black box that, given an argument, evaluates the function. The player should find out a certain character of the function through function evaluation. This is the typical problem addressed by the quantum algorithms. In former theoretical work, we showed that a quantum algorithm requires the number of function evaluations of a classical algorithm that knows in advance 50% of the information that specifies the solution of the problem. Here we check that this 50% rule holds for the main quantum algorithms. In the structured problems, a classical algorithm with the advanced information, to identify the missing information should perform one function evaluation. The speed up is exponential since a classical algorithm without advanced information should perform an exponential number of function evaluations. In unstructured database search, a classical algorithm that knows in advance 50% of the n bits of the database location, to identify the n/2 missing bits should perform Order(2 power n/2) function evaluations. The speed up is quadratic since a classical algorithm without advanced information should perform Order(2 power n) function evaluations. The 50% rule identifies the problems solvable with a quantum sped up in an entirely classical way, in fact by comparing two classical algorithms, with and without the advanced information.

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