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Physics  1995 

Chaos in Andreev Billiards

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.75.1735

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A new type of classical billiard - the Andreev billiard - is investigated using the tangent map technique. Andreev billiards consist of a normal region surrounded by a superconducting region. In contrast with previously studied billiards, Andreev billiards are integrable in zero magnetic field, {\it regardless of their shape}. A magnetic field renders chaotic motion in a generically shaped billiard, which is demonstrated for the Bunimovich stadium by examination of both Poincar\'e sections and Lyapunov exponents. The issue of the feasibility of certain experimental realizations is addressed.


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