We discuss how to formulate a staggered chiral perturbation theory. This amounts to a generalization of the Lee-Sharpe Lagrangian to include more than one flavor (i.e. multiple staggered fields), which turns out to be nontrivial. One loop corrections to pion and kaon masses and decay constants are computed as examples in three cases: the quenched, partially quenched, and full (unquenched) case. The results for the one loop mass and decay constant corrections have already been presented in Ref. .