All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Oilseed Meal Effects on the Emergence and Survival of Crop and Weed Species

DOI: 10.1155/2012/769357

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Oilseed crops are being widely evaluated for potential biodiesel production. Seed meal (SM) remaining after extracting oil may have use as bioherbicides or organic fertilizers. Brassicaceae SM often contains glucosinolates that hydrolyze into biologically active compounds that may inhibit various pests. Jatropha curcas SM contains curcin, a phytoxin. A 14-day greenhouse study determined that Sinapis alba (white mustard), Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), Camelina sativa, and Jatropha curcas applied to soil at varying application rates [0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5% (w/w)] and incubation times (1, 7, and 14?d) prior to planting affected seed emergence and seedling survival of cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)], sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). With each species, emergence and survival was most decreased by 2.5% SM application applied at 1?and 7?d incubations. White mustard SM incubated for 1?d applied at low and high rates had similar negative effects on johnsongrass seedlings. Redroot pigweed seedling survival was generally most decreased by all 2.5% SM applications. Based on significant effects determined by ANOVA, results suggested that the type, rate, and timing of SM application should be considered before land-applying SMs in cropping systems. 1. Introduction Research involving oilseed crops for biodiesel production has increased due to greater needs for renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is an EPA-approved renewable fuel that can be produced from oilseed crops. The oil extracted from seed is chemically reacted with an alcohol, such as methanol, to form chemical compounds known as fatty acid methyl esters, or “biodiesel.” The oil contained in the seed is most often extracted mechanically using a screw press. The residue remaining after oil extraction is referred to as either a press cake or seed meal (SM). In order for biodiesel production to be economically and environmentally sustainable, a feasible and profitable means of byproduct or SM disposal and/or usage needs to be developed. Utilization of SM in organic agricultural production systems offers a possible solution. Oilseeds have the potential to produce significant energy and renewable fuels and include such oilseeds as soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], canola and rapeseed (Brassica napus), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), white mustard (Sinapis alba), physic nut or jatropha (Jatropha curcas), camelina (Camelina sativa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). Brassicaceae oilseeds have been reported to contain 30 to

References

[1]  A. Snyder, M. J. Morra, J. Johnson-Maynard, and D. C. Thill, “Seed meals from brassicaceae oilseed crops as soil amendments: influence on carrot growth, microbial biomass nitrogen, and nitrogen mineralization,” HortScience, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 354–361, 2009.
[2]  G. R. Rao, G. R. Korwar, A. K. Shanker, and Y. S. Ramakrishna, “Genetic associations, variability and diversity in seed characters, growth, reproductive phenology and yield in Jatropha curcas (L.) accessions,” Trees, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 697–709, 2008.
[3]  A. J. King, W. He, J. A. Cuevas, M. Freudenberger, D. Ramiaramanana, and I. A. Graham, “Potential of Jatropha curcas as a source of renewable oil and animal feed,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 2897–2905, 2009.
[4]  G. Francis, R. Edinger, and K. Becker, “A concept for simultaneous wasteland reclamation, fuel production, and socio-economic development in degraded areas in India: need, potential and perspectives of Jatropha plantations,” Natural Resources Forum, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 12–24, 2005.
[5]  R. F. Mithen, “Glucosinolates and their degradation products,” Advances in Botanical Research, vol. 35, pp. 213–232, 2001.
[6]  A. L. Gimsing and J. A. Kirkegaard, “Glucosinolates and biofumigation: fate of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products in soil,” Phytochemistry Reviews, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 299–310, 2009.
[7]  D. Hansson, M. J. Morra, V. Borek, A. J. Snyder, J. L. Johnson-Maynard, and D. C. Thill, “Ionic thiocyanate (SCN-) production, fate, and phytotoxicity in soil amended with Brassicaceae seed meals,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 3912–3917, 2008.
[8]  A. R. Rice, J. L. Johnson-Maynard, D. C. Thill, and M. J. Morra, “Vegetable crop emergence and weed control following amendment with different,” Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 204–212, 2007.
[9]  H. Y. Ju, B. B. Bible, and C. Chong, “Influence of ionic thiocyanate on growth of cabbage, bean, and tobacco,” Journal of Chemical Ecology, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1255–1262, 1983.
[10]  R. E. E. Jongschaap, W. J. Corré, P. S. Bindraban, and W. A. Brandenburg, Claims and Facts on Jatropha Curcas L., Plant Research International, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2007.
[11]  S. L. McGeehan and D. V. Naylor, “Automated instrumental analysis of carbon and nitrogen in plant and soil samples,” Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 493–505, 1988.
[12]  E. E. Schulte and B. G. Hopkins, “Estimation of soil organic matter by weight lost-on-ignition,” in Soil Organic Matter: Analysis and Interpretation, F. R. Magdoff, M. A. Tabatabai, and E. A. Hanlon Jr., Eds., Special Publication No. 46, pp. 21–32, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wis, USA, 1996.
[13]  D. A. Storer, “A simple high sample volume ashing procedure for determination of soil organic matter,” Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 759–772, 1984.
[14]  A. Mehlich, “New extractant for soil test evaluation of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, manganese, and zinc,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, vol. 9, pp. 477–492, 1978.
[15]  A. Mehlich, “Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: a modification of Mehlich 2 extractant,” Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1409–1416, 1984.
[16]  W. L. Lindsay and W. A. Norvell, “Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 42, pp. 421–428, 1978.
[17]  D. R. Keeney and D. W. Nelson, “Nitrogen—inorganic forms,” in Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, A. L. Page, et al., Ed., pp. 643–687, ASA and SSSA, Madison, Wis, USA, 1982.
[18]  J. D. Rhoades, “Soluble salts,” in Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, A. L. Page, et al., Ed., pp. 167–168, ASA and SSSA, Madison, Wis, USA, 1982.
[19]  P. R. Day, “Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis,” in Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, C. A. Black, et al., Ed., pp. 545–567, ASA and SSSA, Madison, Wis, USA, 1965.
[20]  A. S. Wang, P. Hu, E. B. Hollister et al., “Impact of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed meal applications on soil carbon, nitrogen, and microbial dynamics,” Applied and Environmental Soil Science, vol. 2012, Article ID 351609, 14 pages, 2012.
[21]  P. Hu, A. S. Wang, A. S. Engledow et al., “Inhibition of the germination and growth of Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (Cotton root rot) by oilseed meals and isothiocyanates,” Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 49, pp. 68–75, 2011.
[22]  International Organization for Standarization, Rapeseed–Determination of Glucosinolates Content–part 1: Method Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, ISO 9167-1:1992-(E), Geneva, Switzerland, 1992.
[23]  M. J. Morra and J. A. Kirkegaard, “Isothiocyanate release from soil-incorporated Brassica tissues,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1683–1690, 2002.
[24]  V. Borek, M. J. Morra, P. D. Brown, and J. P. McCaffrey, “Transformation of the glucosinolate-derived allelochemicals allyl isothiocyanate and allylnitrile in soil,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 1935–1940, 1995.
[25]  P. D. Brown and M. J. Morra, “Fate of ionic thiocyanate (SCN-) in soil,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 978–982, 1993.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus