Malate is the first stable product after CO2 is fixed in NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME) type of C4 plants, which transfers CO2 and the reducing equivalent from mesophyll cell (MC) to vascular bundle sheath cell (BSC) chloroplasts and affects the redox state of BSC. The aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect of exogenous malate on the activity of photosystem II (PS II) in C4 and C3 plants. The leaf discs from the 5th fully expanded leaves of maize (NADP-ME type C4 plants) and the 10th fully expanded leaves of tobacco (C3 plants) were treated with malate of 50, 100 μM and the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured. Malate treatments decreased the photochemical reaction efficiency (FV/FM) in maize leaves, as a result of rising in initial fluorescence (FO) and decreasing in maximal fluorescence (FM). The number of active PS II reaction center (RC) per excited cross section (RC/CS) declined in malate-treated maize, suggesting that malate inactivated PS II RC. Malate treatments also increased Wk, representing the severity of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) damage, and decreased the rate of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. We conclude that exogenous malate regulates the activity and structure of PS II in C4 plant maize. No significant changes in the activity of PS II were observed in malate-treated C3 plant tobacco. It is suggested that the short term malate treatment will inhibit PS II of leaves which have C4 anatomy and C4 enzymes.
Hudspeth, R.L., Grula, J.W., Dai, Z., Edwards, G.E. and Ku, M.S.B. (1992) Expression of Maize Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase in Transgenic Tobacco: Effects on Biochemistry and Physiology. Plant Physiology, 98, 458-464.
Ku, M.S.B., Agarie, S., Nomura, M., Fukayama, H., Tsuchida, H., Ono, K., Hirose, S., Toki, S., Miyao, M. and Matsuoka, M. (1999) High-Level Expression of Maize Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase in Transgenic Rice Plants. Nature Biotechnology, 17, 76-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/5256
Takeuchi, Y., Akagi, H., Kamasawa, N., Osumi, M. and Honda, H. (2000) Aberrant Chloroplasts in Transgenic Rice Plants Expressing a High Level of Maize NADP-Dependent Malic Enzyme. Planta, 211, 265-274.
Tsuchida, H., Tamai, T., Fukayama, H., Agarie, S., Nomura, M., Onodera, H., Ono, K., Nishizawa, Y., Lee, B.H., Hirose, S., Toki, S., Ku, M.S.B. and Miyao, M. (2001) High Level Expression of C4-Specific NADP-Malic Enzyme in Leaves and Impairment of Photoautotrophic Growth in a C3 Plant, Rice. Plant and Cell Physiology, 452, 138-145.
Fukayama, H., Tamai, T., Taniguchi, Y., Sullivan, S., Miyao, M. and Nimmo, H. (2006) Characterization and Functional Analysis of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Kinase Genes in Rice. Plant Journal, 47, 258-268.
Endo, T., Mihara, Y., Furumoto, T., Matsumura, H., Kai, Y. and Izui, K. (2008) Maize C4-Form Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Engineered to Be Functional in C3 Plants: Mutations for Diminished Sensitivity to Feedback Inhibitors and for Increased Substrate Affinity. Journal of Experimental Botany, 59, 1811-1818.
Ruan, C.J., Shao, H.B. and da Silva, J.A.T. (2012) A Critical Review on the Improvement of Photosynthetic Carbon Assimilation in C3 Plants Using Genetic Engineering. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 32, 1-21.
Matsuoka, M., Furbank, R.T., Fukayama, H. and Miyao, M. (2001) Molecular Engineering of C4 Photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 52, 297-314.
Furbank, R.T. and Foyer, C.H. (1988) C4 Plants as Valuable Model Experimental Systems for the Study of Photosynthesis. New Phytologist, 109, 265-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1988.tb04195.x
Crespo, H.M., Frean, M., Cresswell, C.F. and Tew, J. (1979) The Occurrence of Both C3 and C4 Photosynthetic Characteristics in a Single Zea mays Plant. Planta, 147, 257-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00388748
Strasser, B.J. and Strasser, R.J. (1995) Measuring Fast Fluorescence Transients to Address Environmental Questions: The JIP-Test. In: Mathis, P., Ed., Photosynthesis: From Light to Biosphere, KAP Press, Dordrecht, 977-980.
Strasserf, R.J. and Srivastava, A. (1995) Polyphasic Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Transient in Plants and Cyanobacteria. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 61, 32-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.1995.tb09240.x
Strasser, R.J., Tsimill-Michael, M. and Srivastava, A. (2004) Analysis of the Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Transient. In: Papageorgiou, G.C. and Govindjee, Eds., Chlorophyll a Fluorescence: A Signature of Photosynthesis, Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, Springer Press, Berlin, 321-362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-3218-9_12
Chen, H.X., Li, W.J., An, S.Z. and Gao, H.Y. (2004) Dissipation of Excess Energy in Mehler-Peroxidase Reaction in Rumex Leaves during Salt Shock. Photosynthetic, 42, 117-122.