All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Impact of No-Tillage and Conventional Tillage Systems on Soil Microbial Communities

DOI: 10.1155/2012/548620

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Soil management practices influence soil physical and chemical characteristics and bring about changes in the soil microbial community structure and function. In this study, the effects of long-term conventional and no-tillage practices on microbial community structure, enzyme activities, and selected physicochemical properties were determined in a continuous corn system on a Decatur silt loam soil. The long-term no-tillage treatment resulted in higher soil carbon and nitrogen contents, viable microbial biomass, and phosphatase activities at the 0–5?cm depth than the conventional tillage treatment. Soil microbial community structure assessed using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) varied by tillage practice and soil depth. The abundance of PLFAs indicative of fungi, bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and actinobacteria was consistently higher in the no-till surface soil. Results of principal components analysis based on soil physicochemical and enzyme variables were in agreement with those based on PLFA and ARISA profiles. Soil organic carbon was positively correlated with most of the PLFA biomarkers. These results indicate that tillage practice and soil depth were two important factors affecting soil microbial community structure and activity, and conservation tillage practices improve both physicochemical and microbiological properties of soil. 1. Introduction Tillage systems influence physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil and have a major impact on soil productivity and sustainability. Conventional tillage practices may adversely affect long-term soil productivity due to erosion and loss of organic matter in soils. Sustainable soil management can be practiced through conservation tillage (including no-tillage), high crop residue return, and crop rotation [1]. Studies conducted under a wide range of climatic conditions, soil types, and crop rotation systems showed that soils under no-tillage and reduced tillage have significantly higher soil organic matter contents compared with conventionally tilled soils [2]. Conservation tillage is defined as a tillage system in which at least 30% of crop residues are left in the field and is an important conservation practice to reduce soil erosion [3]. The advantages of conservation tillage practices over conventional tillage include (1) reducing cultivation cost; (2) allowing crop residues to act as an insulator and reducing soil temperature fluctuation; (3) building up soil organic matter; (4) conserving soil moisture [4, 5].

References

[1]  P. R. Hobbs, K. Sayre, and R. Gupta, “The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, vol. 363, no. 1491, pp. 543–555, 2008.
[2]  R. Alvarez, “A review of nitrogen fertilizer and conservation tillage effects on soil organic carbon storage,” Soil Use and Management, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 38–52, 2005.
[3]  N. D. Uri, “Factors affecting the use of conservation tillage in the United States,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 116, no. 3-4, pp. 621–638, 1999.
[4]  E. B. Schwab, D. W. Reeves, C. H. Burmester, and R. L. Raper, “Conservation tillage systems for cotton in the Tennessee Valley,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 569–577, 2002.
[5]  T. O. West and W. M. Post, “Soil organic carbon sequestration rates by tillage and crop rotation: a global data analysis,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 1930–1946, 2002.
[6]  M. M. Wander, M. G. Bidart, and S. Aref, “Tillage impacts on depth distribution of total and particulate organic matter in three Illinois soils,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 1704–1711, 1998.
[7]  M. D. Trojan and D. R. Linden, “Macroporosity and hydraulic properties of earthworm-affected soils as influenced by tillage and residue management,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 1687–1692, 1998.
[8]  R. H. Azooz, M. A. Arshad, and A. J. Franzluebbers, “Pore size distribution and hydraulic conductivity affected by tillage in Northwestern Canada,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1197–1201, 1996.
[9]  K. Y. Chan and J. A. Mead, “Surface physical properties of a sandy loam soil under different tillage practices,” Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 549–559, 1988.
[10]  E. Kandeler, D. Tscherko, and H. Spiegel, “Long-term monitoring of microbial biomass, N mineralisation and enzyme activities of a chernozem under different tillage management,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 343–351, 1999.
[11]  T. E. Staley, “Soil microbial biomass alterations during the maize silage growing season relative to tillage method,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 1845–1847, 1999.
[12]  Y. Feng, A. C. Motta, D. W. Reeves, C. H. Burmester, E. Van Santen, and J. A. Osborne, “Soil microbial communities under conventional-till and no-till continuous cotton systems,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 1693–1703, 2003.
[13]  B. L. Helgason, F. L. Walley, and J. J. Germida, “Fungal and bacterial abundance in long-term no-till and intensive-till soils of the Northern Great Plains,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 120–127, 2009.
[14]  E. L. Balota, A. Colozzi-Filho, D. S. Andrade, and R. P. Dick, “Microbial biomass in soils under different tillage and crop rotation systems,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 15–20, 2003.
[15]  A. M. Ibekwe, A. C. Kennedy, P. S. Frohne, S. K. Papiernik, C. H. Yang, and D. E. Crowley, “Microbial diversity along a transect of agronomic zones,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 183–191, 2002.
[16]  A. Frostegard, A. Tunlid, and E. Baath, “Phospholipid fatty acid composition, biomass, and activity of microbial communities from two soil types experimentally exposed to different heavy metals,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 3605–3617, 1993.
[17]  M. M. Fisher and E. W. Triplett, “Automated approach for ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis of microbial diversity and its application to freshwater bacterial communities,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 65, no. 10, pp. 4630–4636, 1999.
[18]  R. G. Burns, “Extracellular enzyme-substrate interactions in soil,” in Microbes in their Natural Environment, R. W. J. H. Slater and J. W. T. Wimpenny, Eds., pp. 249–298, Cambridge University Press, London, UK, 1983.
[19]  R. L. Sinsabaugh, R. K. Antibus, and A. E. Linkins, “An enzymic approach to the analysis of microbial activity during plant litter decomposition,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 34, no. 1–4, pp. 43–54, 1991.
[20]  R. P. Dick, J. A. Sandor, and N. S. Eash, “Soil enzyme activities after 1500 years of terrace agriculture in the Colca Valley, Peru,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 123–131, 1994.
[21]  W. A. Dick and M. A. Tabatabai, “Potential uses of soil enzymes,” in Soil Microbial Ecology: Applications in Agricultural and Environmental Management, F. B. Metting Jr, Ed., pp. 95–127, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1992.
[22]  M. A. Tabatabai, “Soil enzymes,” in Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2-Chemical and Microbiological Properties, A. L. Page, R. H. Miller, and D. R. Keeney, Eds., pp. 775–883, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wis, USA, 1994.
[23]  M. Cardinale, L. Brusetti, P. Quatrini et al., “Comparison of different primer sets for use in automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis of complex bacterial communities,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 70, no. 10, pp. 6147–6156, 2004.
[24]  L. Ranjard, F. Poly, J. Combrisson et al., “Heterogeneous cell density and genetic structure of bacterial pools associated with various soil microenvironments as determined by enumeration and DNA fingerprinting approach (RISA),” Microbial Ecology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 263–272, 2000.
[25]  B. Nicolardot, L. Bouziri, F. Bastian, and L. Ranjard, “A microcosm experiment to evaluate the influence of location and quality of plant residues on residue decomposition and genetic structure of soil microbial communities,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1631–1644, 2007.
[26]  L. Ranjard, A. Echairi, V. Nowak, D. P. H. Lejon, R. Noua?m, and R. Chaussod, “Field and microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of agricultural Cu treatment on the density and genetic structure of microbial communities in two different soils,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 303–315, 2006.
[27]  N. Kennedy, J. Connolly, and N. Clipson, “Impact of lime, nitrogen and plant species on fungal community structure in grassland microcosms,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 780–788, 2005.
[28]  N. Kennedy, S. Edwards, and N. Clipson, “Soil bacterial and fungal community structure across a range of unimproved and semi-improved upland grasslands,” Microbial Ecology, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 463–473, 2005.
[29]  A. Frosteg?rd and E. B??th, “The use of phospholipid fatty acid analysis to estimate bacterial and fungal biomass in soil,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 22, no. 1-2, pp. 59–65, 1996.
[30]  T. A. Spedding, C. Hamel, G. R. Mehuys, and C. A. Madramootoo, “Soil microbial dynamics in maize-growing soil under different tillage and residue management systems,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 499–512, 2004.
[31]  C. Kaiser, A. Frank, B. Wild, M. Koranda, and A. Richter, “Negligible contribution from roots to soil-borne phospholipid fatty acid fungal biomarkers 18:2ω6,9 and 18:1ω9,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1650–1652, 2010.
[32]  L. E. Jackson, F. J. Calderon, K. L. Steenwerth, K. M. Scow, and D. E. Rolston, “Responses of soil microbial processes and community structure to tillage events and implications for soil quality,” Geoderma, vol. 114, no. 3-4, pp. 305–317, 2003.
[33]  J. Moore-Kucera and R. P. Dick, “PLFA profiling of microbial community structure and seasonal shifts in soils of a Douglas-fir chronosequence,” Microbial Ecology, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 500–511, 2008.
[34]  S. A. Boyle, R. R. Yarwood, P. J. Bottomley, and D. D. Myrold, “Bacterial and fungal contributions to soil nitrogen cycling under Douglas fir and red alder at two sites in Oregon,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 443–451, 2008.
[35]  J. A. Ceja-Navarro, F. N. Rivera-Ordu?a, L. Pati?o-Zú?iga et al., “Phylogenetic and multivariate analyses to determine the effects of different tillage and residue management practices on soil bacterial communities,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 3685–3691, 2010.
[36]  R. A. Drijber, J. W. Doran, A. M. Parkhurst, and D. J. Lyon, “Changes in soil microbial community structure with tillage under long-term wheat-fallow management,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1419–1430, 2000.
[37]  M. Ekenler and M. A. Tabatabai, “Responses of phosphatases and arylsulfatase in soils to liming and tillage systems,” Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, vol. 166, no. 3, pp. 281–290, 2003.
[38]  R. Lal, “Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5677, pp. 1623–1627, 2004.
[39]  R. P. Dick, D. P. Breakwell, and R. F. Turco, “Soil enzyme activities and biodiversity measurements as integrative microbiological indicators,” in Methods for Assessing Soil Quality, J. W. Doran and A. J. Jones, Eds., pp. 247–271, Soil Science Society of America, Madison,Wis, USA, 1996.
[40]  C. E. Pankhurst, C. A. Kirkby, B. G. Hawke, and B. D. Harch, “Impact of a change in tillage and crop residue management practice on soil chemical and microbiological properties in a cereal-producing red duplex soil in NSW, Australia,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 189–196, 2002.
[41]  S. D. Frey, E. T. Elliott, and K. Paustian, “Bacterial and fungal abundance and biomass in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems along two climatic gradients,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 573–585, 1999.
[42]  P. W. Ramsey, M. C. Rillig, K. P. Feris, W. E. Holben, and J. E. Gannon, “Choice of methods for soil microbial community analysis: PLFA maximizes power compared to CLPP and PCR-based approaches,” Pedobiologia, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 275–280, 2006.
[43]  R. S. Peixoto, H. L. C. Coutinho, B. Madari et al., “Soil aggregation and bacterial community structure as affected by tillage and cover cropping in the Brazilian Cerrados,” Soil and Tillage Research, vol. 90, no. 1-2, pp. 16–28, 2006.
[44]  N. C. Prevost-Boure, P. A. Maron, L. Ranjard et al., “Seasonal dynamics of the bacterial community in forest soils under different quantities of leaf litter,” Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 14–23, 2011.
[45]  L. Ranjard, F. Poly, J. C. Lata, C. Mougel, J. Thioulouse, and S. Nazaret, “Characterization of bacterial and fungal soil communities by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis fingerprints: biological and methodological variability,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 4479–4487, 2001.
[46]  R. Zornoza, C. Guerrero, J. Mataix-Solera, K. M. Scow, V. Arcenegui, and J. Mataix-Beneyto, “Changes in soil microbial community structure following the abandonment of agricultural terraces in mountainous areas of Eastern Spain,” Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 315–323, 2009.
[47]  C. L. Lauber, M. S. Strickland, M. A. Bradford, and N. Fierer, “The influence of soil properties on the structure of bacterial and fungal communities across land-use types,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 2407–2415, 2008.
[48]  R. H. Findlay, “Determination of microbial community structure using phospholipid fatty acid profiles,” in Molecular Microbial Ecology Manual, G. A. Kowalchuk II, Ed., pp. 983–1004, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2004.
[49]  E. A. Paul and F. E. Clark, Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1996.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal