全部 标题 作者
关键词 摘要

PeerJ  2015 

Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) reassure others in distress

DOI: 10.7717/peerj.278

Keywords: Consolation,Elephants,Conflict resolution,Targeted helping,Convergent cognitive evolution

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Contact directed by uninvolved bystanders toward others in distress, often termed consolation, is uncommon in the animal kingdom, thus far only demonstrated in the great apes, canines, and corvids. Whereas the typical agonistic context of such contact is relatively rare within natural elephant families, other causes of distress may trigger similar, other-regarding responses. In a study carried out at an elephant camp in Thailand, we found that elephants affiliated significantly more with other individuals through directed, physical contact and vocal communication following a distress event than in control periods. In addition, bystanders affiliated with each other, and matched the behavior and emotional state of the first distressed individual, suggesting emotional contagion. The initial distress responses were overwhelmingly directed toward ambiguous stimuli, thus making it difficult to determine if bystanders reacted to the distressed individual or showed a delayed response to the same stimulus. Nonetheless, the directionality of the contacts and their nature strongly suggest attention toward the emotional states of conspecifics. The elephants’ behavior is therefore best classified with similar consolation responses by apes, possibly based on convergent evolution of empathic capacities.

References

[1]  Altmann J. 1974. Observational study of behaviour: sampling methods. Behaviour 49:227-266
[2]  Aureli F. 2000. Aureli F, ed. Natural conflict resolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.
[3]  Aureli F, van Schaik CP, van Hooff JARAM. 1989. Functional aspects of reconciliation among captive long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) American Journal of Primatology 19:39-51
[4]  Bates LA, Lee PC, Njiraini N, Poole JH, Sayialel K, Sayialel S, Moss CJ, Byrne RW. 2008. Do elephants show empathy? Journal of Consciousness Studies 15:204-225
[5]  Byrne RW, Bates LA, Moss CJ. 2009. Elephant cognition in primate perspective. Comparative Cognition Behavior Reviews 4:1-15
[6]  Call J, Aureli F, de Waal FBM. 2002. Postconflict third-party affiliation in stumptailed macaques. Animal Behaviour 63:209-216
[7]  Clay Z, de Waal FBM. 2013. Development of socio-emotional competence in bonobos. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110:18121-18126
[8]  Cools AKA, van Hout AJM, Nelissen MHJ. 2008. Canine reconciliation and third-party-initiated postconflict affiliation: do peacemaking social mechanisms in dogs rival those of higher primates? Ethology 114:53-63
[9]  Cordoni G, Palagi E, Tarli SB. 2006. Reconciliation and consolation in captive Western gorillas. International Journal of Primatology 27:1365-1382
[10]  de Silva S. 2010. Acoustic communication in the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus maximus. Behaviour 147:825-852
[11]  de Silva S, Ranjeewa ADG, Kryazhimskiy S. 2011. The dynamics of social networks among female Asian elephants. BMC Ecology 11:17
[12]  de Waal FBM. 1982. Chimpanzee politics. New York: Harper and Row.
[13]  de Waal FBM. 1990. Peacemaking among primates. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
[14]  de Waal FBM. 2000. Primates – a natural heritage of conflict resolution. Science 289:586-590
[15]  de Waal FBM. 2003. On the possibility of animal empathy. In: Manstead T, Frijda N, Fischer A, eds. Feelings and emotions: the Amsterdam symposium. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 379-399
[16]  de Waal FBM. 2008. Putting the altruism back into altruism: the evolution of empathy. Annual Review of Psychology 59:279-300
[17]  de Waal FBM. 2009. The age of empathy: nature’s lessons for a kinder society. New York: Harmony Books.
[18]  de Waal FBM, Aureli F. 1996. Consolation, reconciliation, and a possible cognitive difference between macaques and chimpanzees. In: Russon AE, Bard KA, Parker ST, eds. Reaching into thought: the minds of the Great Apes. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 80-110
[19]  de Waal FBM, van Roosmalen A. 1979. Reconciliation and consolation among chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 5:55-66
[20]  de Waal FBM, Yoshihara D. 1983. Reconciliation and redirected affection in rhesus monkeys. Behaviour 85:224-241
[21]  Douglas-Hamilton I, Bhalla S, Wittemeyer G, Vollrath F. 2006. Behavioural reactions of elephants towards a dying and deceased matriarch. Applied Animal Behavioral Science 100:87-102
[22]  Douglas-Hamilton I, Douglas-Hamilton O. 1975. Among the elephants. New York: Viking Press.
[23]  Fraser ON, Bugnyar T. 2010. Do ravens show consolation? Responses to distressed others. PLoS ONE 5:e10605
[24]  Fraser ON, Stahl D, Aureli F. 2008. Stress reduction through consolation in chimpanzees. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105:8557-8562
[25]  Hart BL, Hart LA, Pinter-Wollman N. 2008. Large brains and cognition: where do elephants fit in? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 32:86-98
[26]  Hatfield E, Cacioppo JT, Rapson RL. 1994. Emotional contagion. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
[27]  Koole SL. 2009. The psychology of emotion regulation: an integrative review. Cognition & Emotion 23:4-41
[28]  Koski SE, Sterck EHM. 2007. Triadic postconflict affiliation in captive chimpanzees: does consolation console? Animal Behaviour 73:133-142
[29]  Koski SE, Sterck EHM. 2009. Post-conflict third-party affiliation in chimpanzees: what’s in it for the third party? American Journal of Primatology 71:409-418
[30]  Kutsukake N, Castles DL. 2004. Reconciliation and post-conflict third-party affiliation among wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. Primates 45:157-165
[31]  Lair RC. 1997. Gone astray: the care and management of the Asian elephant in domesticity. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
[32]  Langbauer WR. 2000. Elephant communication. Zoo Biology 19:425-445
[33]  Lee PC. 1987. Allomothering among African elephants. Animal Behaviour 35:278-291
[34]  Mallavarapu S, Stoinski TS, Bloomsmith MA, Maple TL. 2006. Postconflict behavior in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) American Journal of Primatology 68:789-801
[35]  McComb K, Moss C, Sayialel S, Baker L. 2000. Unusually extensive networks of vocal recognition in African elephants. Animal Behaviour 59:1103-1109
[36]  McComb K, Moss C, Durant SM, Baker L, Sayialel S. 2001. Matriarchs as repositories of social knowledge in African elephants. Science 292:491-494
[37]  Moss C. 1988. Elephant memories: thirteen years in the life of an elephant family. New York: Fawcett Columbine.
[38]  2011. Moss CJ, Croze HJ, Lee PC, eds. The Amboseli elephants: a long-term perspective on a long-lived mammal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[39]  Nair S, Balakrishnan R, Seelamantula CS, Sukumar R. 2009. Vocalizations of wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): structural classification and social context. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 126:2768-2778
[40]  Nishida T, Zamma K, Matsusaka T, Inaba A, McGrew WC. 2010. Chimpanzee behaviour in the wild: an audio-visual Encyclopedia. Tokyo: Springer.
[41]  2004. Olson D, ed. Elephant husbandry resource guide. Lawrence, KS: Allen Press.
[42]  Palagi E, Cordoni G. 2009. Postconflict third-party affiliation in Canislupus: do wolves share similarities with the great apes? Animal Behaviour 78:979-986
[43]  Palagi E, Cordoni G, Tarli SB. 2006. Possible roles of consolation in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) American Journal of Physical Anthropology 129:105-111
[44]  Palagi E, Paoli T, Tarli SB. 2004. Reconciliation and consolation in captive Bonobos (Pan paniscus) American Journal of Primatology 62:15-30
[45]  Payne K. 2003. Sources of social complexity in the three elephant species. In: de Waal FBM, Tyack PL, eds. Animal social complexity: intelligence, culture, and individualized societies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 57-85
[46]  Plotnik JM, de Waal FBM, Reiss D. 2006. Self-recognition in an Asian elephant. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103:17053-17057
[47]  Plotnik JM, Lair R, Suphachoksahakun W, de Waal FBM. 2011. Elephants know when they need a helping trunk in a cooperative task. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108:5116-5121
[48]  Poole J. 1996. Coming of age with elephants. New York: Hyperion.
[49]  Preston SD, de Waal FBM. 2002. Empathy: its ultimate and proximate bases. Behavioural Brain Science 25:7-71
[50]  Romero T, Castellanos MA, de Waal FBM. 2010. Consolation as possible expression of sympathetic concern among chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107:12110-12115
[51]  Romero T, Castellanos MA, de Waal FBM. 2011. Post-conflict affiliation by chimpanzees with aggressors: other-oriented versus selfish political strategy. PLoS ONE 6:e22173
[52]  Romero T, de Waal FBM. 2010. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) consolation: third-party identity as a window on possible function. Journal of Comparative Psychology 124:278-286
[53]  Schino G, Geminiani S, Rosati L, Aureli F. 2004. Behavioural and emotional response of Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers after their offspring receive an aggression. Journal of Comparative Psychology 188:340-346
[54]  Schulte BA. 2000. Social structure and helping behavior in captive elephants. Zoo Biology 19:447-459
[55]  Seed AM, Clayton NS, Emery NJ. 2007. Postconflict third-party affiliation in rooks, Corvus frugilegus. Current Biology 17:152-158
[56]  Siegel S, Castellan NJ. 1988. Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill.
[57]  Sukumar R. 2003. The living elephants: evolutionary ecology, behavior, and conservation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[58]  Sukumar R. 2006. A brief review of the status, distribution and biology of wild Asian elephants, Elephas maximus. International Zoo Yearbook 40:1-8
[59]  Veenema HC, Das M, Aureli F. 1994. Methodological improvements for the study of reconciliation. Behavioural Processes 31:29-37
[60]  Verbeek P, de Waal FBM. 1997. Postconflict behaviour of captive brown capuchins in the presence and absence of attractive food. International Journal of Primatology 18:703-725
[61]  Watts DP, Colmenares F, Arnold K. 2000. Redirection, consolation and male policing: how targets of aggression interact with bystanders. In: Aureli F, de Waal FBM, eds. Natural conflict resolution. Berkeley: University of California Press. 281-301
[62]  Wittig RM, Boesch C. 2003. The choice of post-conflict interactions in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Behaviour 140:1527-1559
[63]  Wittig RM, Crockford C, Wikberg E, Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL. 2007. Kin-mediated reconciliation substitutes for direction reconciliation in female baboons. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274:1009-1115
[64]  Zahn-Waxler C, Hollenbeck B, Radke-Yarrow M. 1984. The origins of empathy and altruism. In: Fox MW, Mickley D, eds. Advances in animal welfare science. Washington: Humane Society. 21-39
[65]  Zahn-Waxler C, Radke-Yarrow M. 1990. The origins of empathic concern. Motivation and Emotion 14:107-130
[66]  Zahn-Waxler C, Radke-Yarrow M, Wagner E, Chapman M. 1992. Development of concern for others. Developmental Psychology 28:126-136

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus