全部 标题 作者
关键词 摘要

Health Implications of Electromagnetic Fields, Mechanisms of Action, and Research Needs

DOI: 10.1155/2014/198609

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been implicated to influence a range of bodily functions. Given their ubiquitous nature, widespread applications, and capability to produce deleterious effects, conclusive investigations of the health risks are critical. Accordingly, this paper has been constructed to weigh the bioeffects, possible biointeraction mechanisms, and research areas in bioelectromagnetics seeking immediate attention. The several gaps in the existing knowledge do not permit one to reach a concrete conclusion but possibility for harmful effects cannot be underestimated in absence of consistent findings and causal mechanisms. Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible. 1. Introduction The terrestrial electromagnetic environment has been and is being rapidly altered by humans as a result of technological advancements. This was well recognised very early in the seventies by Dr. Robert O. Becker (twice nominated for Nobel Prize) who said “I have no doubt in my mind that, at the present time, the greatest polluting element in the earth’s environment is the proliferation of electromagnetic fields (EMFs).” On one hand, these electromagnetic waves (EMW) provide immeasurable benefits; on the other hand, they may also create potential hazards through uncontrolled and excessive radiation emissions. There are various types of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) and depending upon their frequency and wavelength they are categorized into different types. Broadly the EMFs are categorized into two groups, namely, extremely low frequency (ELF) EMF (>3?Hz–3?kHz) and radiofrequency radiation (RFR) EMF (3?kHz–300?GHz). Scientific investigations concerning the interaction of EMF with living systems, especially its health effects, are increasing in number. There are arguments for both positive [1–3] and negative bioeffects [4–8]. However, the lack of sufficient knowledge on biological


[1]  V. Garaj-Vrhovac, G. Gajski, S. Pa?anin et al., “Assessment of cytogenetic damage and oxidative stress in personnel occupationally exposed to the pulsed microwave radiation of marine radar equipment,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 214, no. 1, pp. 59–65, 2011.
[2]  H. Koylu, H. Mollaoglu, F. Ozguner, M. Naziroglu, and N. Delibas, “Melatonin modulates 900?MHz microwave-induced lipid peroxidation changes in rat brain,” Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol. 22, pp. 211–216, 2006.
[3]  H. Lai and N. P. Singh, “Melatonin and a spin-trap compound block radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in rat brain cells,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 446–454, 1997.
[4]  M. R??sli, M. Egger, D. Pfluger, and C. Minder, “Cardiovascular mortality and exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields: a cohort study of Swiss railway workers,” Environmental Health, vol. 7, article 35, 2008.
[5]  O. Zeni, R. di Pietro, G. d'Ambrosio et al., “Formation of reactive oxygen species in L929 cells after exposure to 900?MHz RF radiation with and without co-exposure to 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5- hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone,” Radiation Research, vol. 167, no. 3, pp. 306–311, 2007.
[6]  J. Schüz, R. Jacobsen, J. H. Olsen, J. D. Boice Jr., J. K. McLaughlin, and C. Johansen, “Cellular telephone use and cancer risk: update of a nationwide Danish cohort,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 98, no. 23, pp. 1707–1713, 2006.
[7]  G. J. Hook, D. R. Spitz, J. E. Sim et al., “Evaluation of parameters of oxidative stress after in vitro exposure to FMCW- and CDMA-modulated radiofrequency radiation fields,” Radiation Research, vol. 162, no. 5, pp. 497–504, 2004.
[8]  I. Lagroye, G. J. Hook, B. A. Wettring et al., “Measurements of alkali-labile DNA damage and protein-DNA cross links after 2450 MHz microwave and low-dose gamma irradiation in vitro,” Radiation Research, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 201–214, 2004.
[9]  S. J. Genuis and C. T. Lipp, “Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 414, pp. 103–112, 2012.
[10]  S. J. Regel and P. Achermann, “Cognitive performance measures in bioelectromagnetic research critical evaluation and recommendations,” Environmental Health, vol. 10, article 10, 2011.
[11]  A. E. Kaprana, A. D. Karatzanis, E. P. Prokopakis et al., “Studying the effects of mobile phone use on the auditory system and the central nervous system: a review of the literature and future directions,” European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, vol. 265, no. 9, pp. 1011–1019, 2008.
[12]  A. J. Hamada, A. Singh, and A. Agarwal, “Cell phones and their impact on male fertility: fact or fiction,” The Open Reproductive Science Journal, vol. 5, pp. 125–137, 2011.
[13]  S. B. Mortazavi, A. Safari, A. Khavanin, A. Kazemnejad, S. M. Moazzeni, and R. Abbas, “Induction of micronuclei in mice lymphocytes exposed to microwave and toluene,” American Journal of Applied Science, vol. 2, pp. 1321–1324, 2005.
[14]  D. Leszczynski, S. Joenv??r?, J. Reivinen, and R. Kuokka, “Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects,” Differentiation, vol. 70, no. 2-3, pp. 120–129, 2002.
[15]  E. López-Martín, J. L. Relova-Quinteiro, R. Gallego-Gómez, M. Peleteiro-Fernández, F. J. Jorge-Barreiro, and F. J. Ares-Pena, “GSM radiation triggers seizures and increases cerebral c-Fos positivity in rats pretreated with subconvulsive doses of picrotoxin,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 398, no. 1-2, pp. 139–144, 2006.
[16]  M. Kundi, “Mobile phone use and cancer,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 560–570, 2004.
[17]  I. Yakymenko and E. Sidorik, “Risks of carcinogenesis from electromagnetic radiation of mobile telephony devices,” Experimental Oncology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 54–60, 2010.
[18]  “Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300?GHz). International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection,” Health Physics, vol. 74, pp. 494–522, 1998.
[19]  O. Johansson, “Disturbance of the immune system by electromagnetic fields—a potentially underlying cause for cellular damage and tissue repair reduction which could lead to disease and impairment,” Pathophysiology, vol. 16, no. 2-3, pp. 157–177, 2009.
[20]  T. Kumlin, P. Heikkinen, J. T. Laitinen, and J. Juutilainen, “Exposure to a 50?Hz magnetic field induces a circadian rhythm in 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in mice,” Journal of Radiation Research, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 313–318, 2005.
[21]  J. B. Burch, J. S. Reif, M. G. Yost, T. J. Keefe, and C. A. Pitrat, “Reduced excretion of a melatonin metabolite in workers exposed to 60?Hz magnetic fields,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 27–36, 1999.
[22]  A. W. Wood, S. M. Armstrong, M. L. Sait, L. Devine, and M. J. Martin, “Changes in human plasma melatonin profiles in response to 50 Hz magnetic field exposure,” Journal of Pineal Research, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 116–127, 1998.
[23]  R. G. Stevens and S. Davis, “The melatonin hypothesis: electric power and breast cancer,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 135–140, 1996.
[24]  D. H. Pfluger and C. E. Minder, “Effects of exposure to 16.7 Hz magnetic fields on urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion of Swiss railway workers,” Journal of Pineal Research, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 91–100, 1996.
[25]  W. R. Rogers, R. J. Reiter, H. D. Smith, and L. Barlow-Walden, “Rapid-onset/offset, variably scheduled 60?Hz electric and magnetic field exposure reduces nocturnal serum melatonin concentration in nonhuman primates,” Bioelectromagnetics, supplement 3, pp. 119–122, 1995.
[26]  T. Jorge-Mora, M. Alvarez-Folgueiras, J. Leiro, F. J. Jorge-Barreiro, F. J. Ares-Pena, and E. López-Martín, “Exposure to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation provokes cerebral changes in induction of HSP-90 α/β heat shock protein in rat,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 100, pp. 351–379, 2010.
[27]  A. F. Fragopoulou, P. Miltiadous, A. Stamatakis, F. Stylianopoulou, S. L. Koussoulakos, and L. H. Margaritis, “Whole body exposure with GSM 900MHz affects spatial memory in mice,” Pathophysiology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 179–187, 2010.
[28]  H. Lai, A. Horita, and A. W. Guy, “Microwave irradiation affects radial-arm maze performance in the rat,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 95–104, 1994.
[29]  J. Walleczek, “Electromagnetic field effects on cells of the immune system: the role of calcium signaling,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 6, no. 13, pp. 3177–3185, 1992.
[30]  H. Nittby, A. Brun, J. Eberhardt, L. Malmgren, B. R. R. Persson, and L. G. Salford, “Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone,” Pathophysiology, vol. 16, no. 2-3, pp. 103–112, 2009.
[31]  K. K. Kesari, J. Behari, and S. Kumar, “Mutagenic response of 2.45GHz radiation exposure on rat brain,” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 334–343, 2010.
[32]  H. W. Ruediger, “Genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields,” Pathophysiology, vol. 16, no. 2-3, pp. 89–102, 2009.
[33]  H. Lai and N. P. Singh, “Magnetic field-induced DNA strand breaks in brain cells of the rat,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 112, no. 6, pp. 687–694, 2004.
[34]  H. P. Hutter, H. Moshammer, P. Wallner, and M. Kundi, “Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems, and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 307–313, 2006.
[35]  H. Seitz, D. Stinner, T. Eikmann, C. Herr, and M. R??sli, “Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) and subjective health complaints associated with electromagnetic fields of mobile phone communication—a literature review published between 2000 and 2004,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 349, no. 1–3, pp. 45–55, 2005.
[36]  M. R??sli, M. Moser, Y. Baldinini, M. Meier, and C. Braun-Fahrl?nder, “Symptoms of ill health ascribed to electromagnetic field exposure—a questionnaire survey,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 207, no. 2, pp. 141–150, 2004.
[37]  E. A. Navarro, J. Segura, M. Portolés, and C. Gómez-Perretta, “The microwave syndrome: a preliminary study in Spain,” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 22, no. 2-3, pp. 161–169, 2003.
[38]  L. Hardell, K. Hansson Mild, M. Sandstr?m, M. Carlberg, A. Hallquist, and A. P?hlson, “Vestibular schwannoma, tinnitus and cellular telephones,” Neuroepidemiology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 124–129, 2003.
[39]  L. Hardell, M. Carlberg, and K. Hansson Mild, “Use of cellular telephones and brain tumour risk in urban and rural areas,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 390–394, 2005.
[40]  L. Hardell, M. Carlberg, F. S?derqvist, K. H. Mild, and L. L. Morgan, “Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours: increased risk associated with use for >10 years,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 626–632, 2007.
[41]  L. Hardell and M. Carlberg, “Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 5–17, 2009.
[42]  H. Kabuto, I. Yokoi, A. Mori, and N. Ogawa, “Effects of an in vivo 60?Hz magnetic field on monoamine levels in mouse brain,” Pathophysiology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 115–119, 2000.
[43]  WHO (World Health Organisation), “Electromagnetic hypersensitivity,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on EMF Hypersensitivity, Prague, Czech Republic, 2004.
[44]  T. Barsam, M. R. Monazzam, A. A. Haghdoost, M. R. Ghotbi, and S. F. Dehghan, “Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations,” Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, vol. 9, no. 15, 2012.
[45]  M. R. Monazzam, M. Hosseini, L. F. Matin, H. A. Aghaei, H. Khosroabadi, and A. Hesami, “Sleep quality and general health status of employees exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields in a petrochemical complex,” Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering, vol. 12, article 78, 2014.
[46]  E. van Wijngaarden, D. A. Savitz, R. C. Kleckner, J. Cai, and D. Loomis, “Exposure to electromagnetic fields and suicide among electric utility workers: a nested case-control study,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 258–263, 2000.
[47]  I. L. Beale, N. E. Pearce, D. M. Conroy, M. A. Henning, and K. A. Murrell, “Psychological effects of chronic exposure to 50?Hz magnetic fields in humans living near extra-high-voltage transmission lines,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 584–594, 1997.
[48]  M. Havas, “Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: biological effects of dirty electricity with emphasis on diabetes and multiple sclerosis,” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 259–268, 2006.
[49]  M. Havas and A. Olstad, “Power quality affects teacher wellbeing and student behavior in three Minnesota Schools,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 402, no. 2-3, pp. 157–162, 2008.
[50]  M. M. Khan, “Adverse effects of excessive mobile phone use,” International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 289–293, 2008.
[51]  T. Al-Khlaiwi and S. A. Meo, “Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 732–736, 2004.
[52]  D. R. Kohli, A. Sachdev, and H. S. Vats, “Cell phones and tumor: still in no man′s land,” Indian Journal of Cancer, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 5–12, 2009.
[53]  E. Valentini, G. Curcio, F. Moroni, M. Ferrara, L. de Gennaro, and M. Bertini, “Neurophysiological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields on humans: a comprehensive review,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 415–432, 2007.
[54]  A. Ahlbom, E. Cardis, A. Green, M. Linet, D. Savitz, and A. Swerdlow, “Review of the epidemiologic literature on EMF and health,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 109, no. 6, pp. 911–933, 2001.
[55]  D. O. Carpenter, “Possible effects of electromagnetic fields on the nervous system and development,” MRDD Research Reviews, vol. 3, pp. 270–274, 1997.
[56]  C. Silverman, “Nervous and behavioral effects of microwave radiation in humans,” The American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 219–224, 1973.
[57]  P. Levallois, “Hypersensitivity of human subjects to environmental electric and magnetic field exposure: a review of the literature.,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 110, pp. 613–618, 2002.
[58]  M. R. Scarfí, A. Sannino, A. Perrotta, M. Sarti, P. Mesirca, and F. Bersani, “Evaluation of genotoxic effects in human fibroblasts after intermittent exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields: a confirmatory study,” Radiation Research, vol. 164, no. 3, pp. 270–276, 2005.
[59]  Y. H. Cho and H. W. Chung, “The effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the frequency of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes induced by benzo(a)pyrene,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 37–44, 2003.
[60]  J. L. Phillips, N. P. Singh, and H. Lai, “Electromagnetic fields and DNA damage,” Pathophysiology, vol. 16, no. 2-3, pp. 79–88, 2009.
[61]  S. Ivancsits, A. Pilger, E. Diem, O. Jahn, and H. W. Rüdiger, “Cell type-specific genotoxic effects of intermittent extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields,” Mutation Research—Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, vol. 583, no. 2, pp. 184–188, 2005.
[62]  J. Delimaris, S. Tsilimigaki, N. Messini-Nicolaki, E. Ziros, and S. M. Piperakis, “Effects of pulsed electric fields on DNA of human lymphocytes,” Cell Biology and Toxicology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 409–415, 2006.
[63]  H. Lai and N. P. Singh, “Melatonin and N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone block 60-Hz magnetic field-induced DNA single and double strand breaks in rat brain cells,” Journal of Pineal Research, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 152–162, 1997.
[64]  J. Jajte, M. Zmy?lony, J. Palus, E. Dziuba?towska, and E. Raikowska, “Protective effect of melatonin against in vitro iron ions and 7?mT 50?Hz magnetic field-induced DNA damage in rat lymphocytes,” Mutation Research, vol. 483, no. 1-2, pp. 57–64, 2001.
[65]  B. Yokus, D. U. Cakir, M. Z. Akdag, C. Sert, and N. Mete, “Oxidative DNA damage in rats exposed to extremely low frequency electro magnetic fields,” Free Radical Research, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 317–323, 2005.
[66]  M. Zmy?lony, J. Palus, J. Jajte, E. Dziubaltowska, and E. Rajkowska, “DNA damage in rat lymphocytes treated in vitro with iron cations and exposed to 7?mT magnetic fields (static or 50?Hz),” Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, vol. 453, no. 1, pp. 89–96, 2000.
[67]  G. d'Ambrosio, R. Massa, M. R. Scarfl, and O. Zeni, “Cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes following GMSK phase modulated microwave exposure,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 2002.
[68]  J. L. Phillips, O. Ivaschuk, T. Ishida-Jones, R. A. Jones, M. Campbell-Beachler, and W. Haggren, “DNA damage in molt-4 T-lymphoblastoid cells exposed to cellular telephone radiofrequency fields in vitro,” Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 103–110, 1998.
[69]  S. Lixia, K. Yao, W. Kaijun et al., “Effects of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field on DNA damage and expression of heat shock protein 70 in human lens epithelial cells,” Mutation Research, vol. 602, no. 1-2, pp. 135–142, 2006.
[70]  L.-X. Sun, K. Yao, J.-L. He, D.-Q. Lu, K.-J. Wang, and H.-W. Li, “Effect of acute exposure to microwave from mobile phone on DNA damage and repair of cultured human lens epithelial cells in vitro,” Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 465–467, 2006 (Chinese).
[71]  V. Garaj-Vrhovac, G. Gajski, I. Tro?i?, and I. Pavi?i?, “Evaluation of basal DNA damage and oxidative stress in Wistar rat leukocytes after exposure to microwave radiation,” Toxicology, vol. 259, no. 3, pp. 107–112, 2009.
[72]  A. R. Ferreira, T. Knakievicz, M. A. de Bittencourt Pasquali et al., “Ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field irradiation during pregnancy leads to an increase in erythrocytes micronuclei incidence in rat offspring,” Life Sciences, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2006.
[73]  J. Luukkonen, P. Hakulinen, J. M?ki-Paakkanen, J. Juutilainen, and J. Naarala, “Enhancement of chemically induced reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation,” Mutation Research, vol. 662, no. 1-2, pp. 54–58, 2009.
[74]  A. G. Gandhi, “Genetic damage in mobile phone users: some preliminary findings,” Indian Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 99–104, 2005.
[75]  A. Karinen, S. Hein?vaara, R. Nylund, and D. Leszczynski, “Mobile phone radiation might alter protein expression in human skin,” BMC Genomics, vol. 9, article 77, 2008.
[76]  A. S. Yadav and M. K. Sharma, “Increased frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells among humans exposed in vivo to mobile telephone radiations,” Mutation Research, vol. 650, no. 2, pp. 175–180, 2008.
[77]  V. G. Khurana, C. Teo, M. Kundi, L. Hardell, and M. Carlberg, “Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including the long-term epidemiologic data,” Surgical Neurology, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 205–214, 2009.
[78]  IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part 1: Static and Extremely Low-Frequency (ELF) Electric and Magnetic Fields, vol. 80 of IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, IARC Press, Lyon, France, 2002.
[79]  J. E. Muscat, M. G. Malkin, S. Thompson et al., “Handheld cellular telephone use and risk of brain cancer,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 284, no. 23, pp. 3001–3007, 2000.
[80]  J. E. Muscat, M. G. Malkin, R. E. Shore et al., “Handheld cellular telephones and risk of acoustic neuroma,” Neurology, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 1304–1306, 2002.
[81]  S. J. Hepworth, M. J. Schoemaker, K. R. Muir, A. J. Swerdlow, M. J. A. van Tongeren, and P. A. McKinney, “Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in adults: case-control study,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 332, no. 7546, pp. 883–887, 2006.
[82]  A. G. Levis, N. Minicuci, P. Ricci, V. Gennaro, and S. Garbisa, “Mobile phones and head tumours: the discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epidemiological studies: how do they arise?” Environmental Health, vol. 10, article no. 59, 2011.
[83]  M. H. Repacholi, A. Basten, V. Gebski, D. Noonan, J. Finnie, and A. W. Harris, “Lymphomas in Eμ-Pim1 transgenic mice exposed to pulsed 900 MHz electromagnetic fields,” Radiation Research, vol. 147, no. 5, pp. 631–640, 1997.
[84]  B. W. Wilson, L. E. Anderson, D. I. Hilton, and R. D. Phillips, “Chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields: effects on pineal function in the rat,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 371–380, 1981.
[85]  A. Lerchl, K. O. Nonaka, K.-A. Stokkan, and R. J. Reiter, “Marked rapid alterations in nocturnal pineal serotonin metabolism in mice and rats exposed to weak intermittent magnetic fields,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 169, no. 1, pp. 102–108, 1990.
[86]  K. Yaga, R. J. Reiter, L. C. Manchester, H. Nieves, S. Jih-Hsing, and C. Li-Dun, “Pineal sensitivity to pulsed static magnetic fields changes during the photoperiod,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 30, no. 1-2, pp. 153–156, 1993.
[87]  D. L. Henshaw and R. J. Reiter, “Do magnetic fields cause increased risk of childhood leukemia via melatonin disruption?” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. S86–S97, 2005.
[88]  C. V. Bellieni, M. Tei, F. Iacoponi et al., “Is newborn melatonin production influenced by magnetic fields produced by incubators?” Early Human Development, vol. 88, no. 8, pp. 707–710, 2012.
[89]  M. El-Helaly and E. Abu-Hashem, “Oxidative stress, melatonin level, and sleep insufficiency among electronic equipment repairers,” Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 66–70, 2010.
[90]  W. T. Chance, C. J. Grossman, R. Newrock et al., “Effects of electromagnetic fields and gender on neurotransmitters and amino acids in rats,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 743–748, 1995.
[91]  H. Sedghi, S. Zare, H. Hayatgeibi, S. Alivandi, and A. G. Ebadi, “Effects of 50?Hz magnetic field on some factors of immune system in the male guinea pigs,” American Journal of Immunology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 37–41, 2005.
[92]  B. J. Youbicier-Simo, F. Boudard, C. Cabaner, and M. Bastide, “Biological effects of continuous exposure of embryos and young chickens to electromagnetic fields emitted by video display units,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 514–523, 1997.
[93]  S. M. J. Mortazavi, S. Vazife-Doost, M. Yaghooti, S. Mehdizadeh, and A. Rajaie-Far, “Occupational exposure of dentists to electromagnetic fields produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons alters the serum cortisol level,” Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 60–64, 2012.
[94]  J. M. Thompson, F. Stormshak, J. M. Lee Jr., D. L. Hess, and L. Painter, “Cortisol secretion and growth in ewe lambs chronically exposed to electric and magnetic fields of a 60-Hertz 500-kilovolt AC transmission line,” Journal of Animal Science, vol. 73, no. 11, pp. 3274–3280, 1995.
[95]  J. Batanjac and E. A. Pauncu, “Risk of 50/60 hertz electromagnetic fields in electric utility workers,” Facta Universitatis: Medicine and Biology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 99–100, 2003.
[96]  K. Radon, D. Parera, D.-M. Rose, D. Jung, and L. Vollrath, “No effects of pulsed radio frequency electromagnetic fields on melatonin, cortisol, and selected markers of the immune system in man,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 280–287, 2001.
[97]  Y. Djeridane, Y. Touitou, and R. de Seze, “Influence of electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM-900 cellular telephones on the circadian patterns of gonadal, adrenal and pituitary hormones in men,” Radiation Research, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 337–343, 2008.
[98]  E. F. Eskander, S. F. Estefan, and A. A. Abd-Rabou, “How does long term exposure to base stations and mobile phones affect human hormone profiles?” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 45, no. 1-2, pp. 157–161, 2012.
[99]  C. Augner, G. W. Hacker, G. Oberfeld et al., “Effects of exposure to GSM mobile phone base station signals on salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and immunoglobulin A,” Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 199–207, 2010.
[100]  H. A. Shahryar, A. Lotfi, M. B. Ghodsi, and A. R. Karami Bonary, “Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields emitted from a cellular phone on the T3, T4, and cortisol levels in Syrian hamsters,” Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 233–236, 2009.
[101]  H. A. Shahryar, A. R. Lotfi, M. Bahojb, and A. R. Karami, “Effects of electromagnetic fields of cellular phone on cortisol and testosterone hormones rate in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus),” International Journal of Zoological Research, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 230–233, 2008.
[102]  K. Mann, P. Wagner, G. Brunn, F. Hassan, C. Hiemke, and J. R?schke, “Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on the neuroendocrine system,” Neuroendocrinology, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 139–144, 1998.
[103]  K. Vangelova, M. Israel, D. Velkova, and M. Ivanova, “Changes in excretion rates of stress hormones in medical staff exposed to electromagnetic radiation,” Environmentalist, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 551–555, 2007.
[104]  K. Vangelova, M. Israel, and S. Mihaylov, “The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts,” Central European Journal of Public Health, vol. 10, no. 1-2, pp. 23–27, 2002.
[105]  M. R. Sarookhani, R. M. Asiabanha, A. Safari, V. Zaroushani, and M. Ziaeiha, “The influence of 950?MHz magnetic field (mobile phone radiation) on sex organ and adrenal functions of male rabbits,” African Journal of Biochemistry Research, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 65–68, 2011.
[106]  K. Buchner and H. Eger, “Changes of clinically important neurotransmitters under the influence of modulated RF fields—a long-term study under real-life conditions,” Umwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 44–57, 2011.
[107]  S. A. Meo, A. M. Al-Drees, S. Husain, M. M. Khan, and M. B. Imran, “Effects of mobile phone radiation on serum testosterone in Wistar albino rats,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 869–873, 2010.
[108]  H. Nakamura, H. Nagase, K. Ogino, K. Hatta, and I. Matsuzaki, “Uteroplacental circulatory disturbance mediated by prostaglandin F(2α) in rats exposed to microwaves,” Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 235–240, 2000.
[109]  R. De Seze, P. Fabbro-Peray, and L. Miro, “GSM radiocellular telephones do not disturb the secretion of antepituitary hormones in humans,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 271–278, 1998.
[110]  S. Mortavazi, A. Habib, A. Ganj-Karami, R. Samimi-Doost, A. Pour-Abedi, and A. Babaie, “Alterations in TSH and thyroid hormones following mobile phone use,” Oman Medical Journal, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 274–278, 2009.
[111]  S. Ghione, C. Del Seppia, L. Mezzasalma, M. Emdin, and P. Luschi, “Human head exposure to a 37 Hz electromagnetic field: effects on blood pressure, somatosensory perception, and related parameters,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 167–175, 2004.
[112]  N. H?kansson, P. Gustavsson, A. Sastre, and B. Floderus, “Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and mortality from cardiovascular disease,” The American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 158, no. 6, pp. 534–542, 2003.
[113]  D. A. Savitz, D. Liao, A. Sastre, R. C. Kleckner, and R. Kavet, “Magnetic field exposure and cardiovascular disease mortality among electric utility workers,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 135–142, 1999.
[114]  M. Zmy?lony, A. Bortkiewicz, and H. Anio?czyk, “Evaluation of selected parameters of circulatory system function in various occupational groups of workers exposed to high frequency electromagnetic fields,” Medycyna Pracy, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 1996.
[115]  A. Bortkiewicz, M. Zmy?lony, E. Gadzicka, C. Pa?czyński, and S. Szmigielski, “Ambulatory ECG monitoring in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields,” Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 41–46, 1997.
[116]  C. V. Bellieni, M. Acampa, M. Maffei et al., “Electromagnetic fields produced by incubators influence heart rate variability in newborns,” Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. F298–F301, 2008.
[117]  D. L. Hayes, P. J. Wang, D. W. Reynolds et al., “Interference with cardiac pacemakers by cellular telephones,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 336, no. 21, pp. 1473–1479, 1997.
[118]  F. M. Ali, W. S. Mohamed, and M. R. Mohamed, “Effect of 50?Hz, 0.2?mT magnetic fields on RBC properties and heart functions of albino rats,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 535–545, 2003.
[119]  S. Shadfar, S. H. Zamzam, M. B. Zendeh, and V. Tabatabaie, “The examination of the effects of electromagnetic fields on heart tissue of rat using optical microscope,” Advances in Environmental Biology, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 1916–1921, 2012.
[120]  A. Bortkiewicz, E. Gadzicka, and M. Zmy?lony, “Heart rate variability in workers exposed to medium-frequency electromagnetic fields,” Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 91–97, 1996.
[121]  K. Vangelova, C. Deyanov, and M. Israel, “Cardiovascular risk in operators under radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 209, no. 2, pp. 133–138, 2006.
[122]  S. Spichtig, F. Scholkmann, L. Chin, H. Lehmann, and M. Wolf, “Assessment of intermittent UMTS electromagnetic field effects on blood circulation in the human auditory region using a near-infrared system,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 40–54, 2012.
[123]  R. Andrzejak, R. Poreba, M. Poreba et al., “The influence of the call with a mobile phone on heart rate variability parameters in healthy volunteers,” Industrial Health, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 409–417, 2008.
[124]  B. Kodavanji, V. S. Mantur, N. A. Kumar, and S. R. Pai, “A pilot study on long-term effects of mobile phone usage on heart rate variability in healthy young adult males,” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 346–349, 2012.
[125]  A. H. Alhusseiny, M. S. Al-Nimer, and A. D. Majeed, “Electromagnetic energy radiated from mobile phone alters electrocardiographic records of patients with ischemic heart disease,” Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research, vol. 2, pp. 146–151, 2012.
[126]  K. C. Nam, S. W. Kim, S. C. Kim, and D. W. Kim, “Effects of RF exposure of teenagers and adults by CDMA cellular phones,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 509–514, 2006.
[127]  A. T. Barker, P. R. Jackson, H. Parry, L. A. Coulton, G. G. Cook, and S. M. Wood, “The effect of GSM and TETRA mobile handset signals on blood pressure, catechol levels and heart rate variability,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 433–438, 2007.
[128]  K. D. Thorat and V. Shelke, “Effects of mobile phone radiation on heart rate variation in healthy volunteers,” Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 840–845, 2013.
[129]  E. Sobel, Z. Davanipour, R. Sulkava et al., “Occupations with exposure to electromagnetic fields: a possible risk factor for Alzheimer's disease,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 142, no. 5, pp. 515–524, 1995.
[130]  M. Trimmel and E. Schweiger, “Effects of an ELF (50?Hz, 1?mT) electromagnetic field (EMF) on concentration in visual attention, perception and memory including effects of EMF sensitivity,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 96-97, pp. 377–382, 1998.
[131]  E. Foroozandeh, H. Ahadi, P. Askari, and M. S. Naeini, “Effects of single, brief exposure to an 8 mT electromagnetic field on avoidance learning in male and female mice,” Psychology and Neuroscience, vol. 4, no. 1, 2011.
[132]  R. Andel, M. Crowe, M. Feychting et al., “Work-related exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and dementia: results from the population-based study of dementia in swedish twins,” The Journals of Gerontology A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 1220–1227, 2010.
[133]  D. Baris, B. G. Armstrong, J. Deadman, and G. Theriault, “A case cohort study of suicide in relation to exposure to electric and magnetic fields among electrical utility workers,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 1996.
[134]  B. P. Salunke, S. N. Umathe, and J. G. Chavan, “Low frequency magnetic field induces depression by rising nitric oxide levels in the mouse brain,” International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy and Life Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 439–450, 2013.
[135]  K. R. Rajeswari, M. Satyanarayana, P. V. Narayan, and S. Subrahmanyam, “Effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field on serum cholinesterase in humans and animals.,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 194–197, 1985.
[136]  F. S. Prato, J. J. L. Carson, K.-P. Ossenkopp, and M. Kavaliers, “Possible mechanisms by which extremely low frequency magnetic fields affect opioid function,” FASEB Journal, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 807–814, 1995.
[137]  L. Zecca, C. Mantegazza, V. Margonato et al., “Biological Effects of Prolonged Exposure to ELF Electromagnetic Fields in Rats: III. 50 Hz Electromagnetic Fields,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 57–66, 1998.
[138]  S. K. Dutta, B. Ghosh, and C. F. Blackman, “Radiofrequency radiation-induced calcium ion efflux enhancement from human and other neuroblastoma cells in culture,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 197–202, 1989.
[139]  J. E. H. Tattersall, I. R. Scott, S. J. Wood et al., “Effects of low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices,” Brain Research, vol. 904, no. 1, pp. 43–53, 2001.
[140]  F. Ferreri, G. Curcio, P. Pasqualetti, L. De Gennaro, R. Fini, and P. M. Rossini, “Mobile phone emissions and human brain excitability,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 188–196, 2006.
[141]  Y. Fu, C. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Lei, and Y. Ma, “Long-term exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields impairs spatial recognition memory in mice,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 797–800, 2008.
[142]  O. Bas, E. Odaci, S. Kaplan, N. Acer, K. Ucok, and S. Colakoglu, “900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure affects qualitative and quantitative features of hippocampal pyramidal cells in the adult female rat,” Brain Research, vol. 1265, pp. 178–185, 2009.
[143]  B. Wang and H. Lai, “Acute exposure to pulsed 2450-MHz microwaves affects water-maze performance of rats,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 52–56, 2000.
[144]  S. N. Narayanan, R. S. Kumar, B. K. Potu, S. Nayak, P. G. Bhat, and M. Mailankot, “Effect of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiations (RF-EMR) on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in Wistar rats,” Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 91–96, 2010.
[145]  G. Abdel-Rassoul, O. A. El-Fateh, M. A. Salem et al., “Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 434–440, 2007.
[146]  S.-E. Chia, H.-P. Chia, and J.-S. Tan, “Prevalence of headache among handheld cellular telephone users in Singapore: a community study,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 108, no. 11, pp. 1059–1062, 2000.
[147]  N. D. Volkow, D. Tomasi, G.-J. Wang et al., “Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 305, no. 8, pp. 808–813, 2011.
[148]  G. Grafstr?m, H. Nittby, A. Brun et al., “Histopathological examinations of rat brains after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 257–263, 2008.
[149]  S. Xu, W. Ning, Z. Xu, S. Zhou, H. Chiang, and J. Luo, “Chronic exposure to GSM 1800-MHz microwaves reduces excitatory synaptic activity in cultured hippocampal neurons,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 398, no. 3, pp. 253–257, 2006.
[150]  G. Del Vecchio, A. Giuliani, M. Fernandez et al., “Continuous exposure to 900 MHz GSM-modulated EMF alters morphological maturation of neural cells,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 455, no. 3, pp. 173–177, 2009.
[151]  K. Yuasa, N. Arai, S. Okabe et al., “Effects of thirty minutes mobile phone use on the human sensory cortex,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 117, no. 4, pp. 900–905, 2006.
[152]  D. Sokolovic, B. Djindjic, J. Nikolic et al., “Melatonin reduces oxidative stress induced by chronic exposure of microwave radiation from mobile phones in rat brain,” Journal of Radiation Research, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 579–586, 2008.
[153]  G. N. De Iuliis, R. J. Newey, B. V. King, and R. J. Aitken, “Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa In vitro,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 7, Article ID e6446, 2009.
[154]  J. Y. Kim, H. T. Kim, K. H. Moon, and H. J. Shin, “Long-term exposure of rats to a 2.45?GHz electromagnetic field: effects on reproductive function,” Korean Journal of Urology, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1308–1314, 2007.
[155]  K. Makker, A. Varghese, N. R. Desai, R. Mouradi, and A. Agarwal, “Cell phones: modern man's nemesis?” Reproductive BioMedicine Online, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 148–157, 2009.
[156]  S. Erpek, M. D. Bilgin, E. Dikicioglu, and A. Karul, “The effects of low frequency electric field in rat testis,” Revue de Medecine Veterinaire, vol. 158, no. 4, pp. 206–212, 2007.
[157]  J. S. Lee, S. S. Ahn, K. C. Jung, Y.-W. Kim, and S. K. Lee, “Effects of 60?Hz electro magnetic field exposure on testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice,” Asian Journal of Andrology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 29–34, 2004.
[158]  Y.-W. Kim, H.-S. Kim, J.-S. Lee et al., “Effects of 60?Hz 14?μT magnetic field on the apoptosis of testicular germ cell in mice,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 66–72, 2009.
[159]  B. M. Tenorio, G. C. Jimenez, R. N. Morais, S. M. Torres, R. Albuquerque Nogueira, and V. A. Silva Jr., “Testicular development evaluation in rats exposed to 60 Hz and 1 mT electromagnetic field,” Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 223–230, 2011.
[160]  M. K. Chung, S. J. Lee, Y. B. Kim et al., “Evaluation of spermatogenesis and fertility in F1 male rats after in utero and neonatal exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields,” Asian Journal of Andrology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 189–194, 2005.
[161]  M. Davoudi, C. Brossner, and W. Kuber, “The influence of electromagnetic waves on sperm motility,” Journal fur Urologie und Urogynakologie, vol. 19, pp. 18–22, 2002.
[162]  I. Fejes, Z. Závaczki, J. Sz?llosi et al., “Is there a relationship between cell phone use and semen quality?” Archives of Andrology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 385–393, 2005.
[163]  A. Agarwal, F. Deepinder, R. K. Sharma, G. Ranga, and J. Li, “Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 124–128, 2008.
[164]  A. Agarwal, N. R. Desai, K. Makker et al., “Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 1318–1325, 2009.
[165]  A. A. Otitoloju, I. A. Obe, O. A. Adewale, O. A. Otubanjo, and V. O. Osunkalu, “Preliminary study on the induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from global system for mobile communication base stations,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 51–54, 2010.
[166]  R. J. Aitken, L. E. Bennetts, D. Sawyer, A. M. Wiklendt, and B. V. King, “Impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA integrity in the male germline,” International Journal of Andrology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 171–179, 2005.
[167]  K. K. Kesari, S. Kumar, and J. Behari, “Mobile phone usage and male infertility in wistar rats,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 987–992, 2010.
[168]  M. Mailankot, A. P. Kunnath, H. Jayalekshmi, B. Koduru, and R. Valsalan, “Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from GSM (0.9/1.8GHZ) mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats,” Clinics, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 561–565, 2009.
[169]  E. P. Ribeiro, E. L. Rhoden, M. M. Horn, C. Rhoden, L. P. Lima, and L. Toniolo, “Effects of subchronic exposure to radio frequency from a conventional cellular telephone on testicular function in adult rats,” Journal of Urology, vol. 177, no. 1, pp. 395–399, 2007.
[170]  N. Falzone, C. Huyser, P. Becker, D. Leszczynski, and D. R. Franken, “The effect of pulsed 900-MHz GSM mobile phone radiation on the acrosome reaction, head morphometry and zona binding of human spermatozoa,” International Journal of Andrology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 2011.
[171]  D. Weisbrot, H. Lin, L. Ye, M. Blank, and R. Goodman, “Effects of mobile phone radiation on reproduction and development in Drosophila melanogaster,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 48–55, 2003.
[172]  A. Wdowiak, L. Wdowiak, and H. Wiktor, “Evaluation of the effect of using mobile phones on male fertility,” Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 169–172, 2007.
[173]  O. Erogul, E. Oztas, I. Yildirim et al., “Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility: an in vitro study,” Archives of Medical Research, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 840–843, 2006.
[174]  O. J. M?llerl?kken and B. E. Moen, “Is fertility reduced among men exposed to radiofrequency fields in the Norwegian Navy?” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 345–352, 2008.
[175]  R. Ouellet-Hellstrom and W. F. Stewart, “Miscarriages among female physical therapists who report using radio- and microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 138, no. 10, pp. 775–786, 1993.
[176]  J. Han, Z. Cao, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Effect of early pregnancy electromagnetic field exposure on embryo growth ceasing,” Journal of hygiene research, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 349–352, 2010.
[177]  A. Gul, H. ?elebi, and S. U?ra?, “The effects of microwave emitted by cellular phones on ovarian follicles in rats,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 280, no. 5, pp. 729–733, 2009.
[178]  Y.-Q. Xu, N.-X. Zheng, B.-H. Li et al., “Female genital toxicities of high-frequency electromagnetic field on rats,” Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 544–548, 2009.
[179]  B. Budak, G. G. Budak, G. G. Ozturk, N. B. Muluk, A. Apan, and N. Seyhan, “Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on distortion product otoacoustic emissions in rabbits,” Auris Nasus Larynx, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 255–262, 2009.
[180]  M. Parazzini, A. R. Brazzale, A. Paglialonga et al., “Effects of GSM cellular phones on human hearing: the European project ‘GUARD’,” Radiation Research, vol. 168, no. 5, pp. 608–613, 2007.
[181]  L. G. Salford, B. Persson, L. Malmgren, and A. Brun, “Téléphonie mobile—effects potentiels sur la santé des ondes électromagnétiques de haute fréquence,” in Téléphonie Mobile et Barrière Sang-Cerveau, P. Marco, Ed., pp. 141–152, Emburg, 2001.
[182]  M. Parazzini, P. Galloni, M. Piscitelli et al., “Possible combined effects of 900?MHZ continuous-wave electromagnetic fields and gentamicin on the auditory system of rats,” Radiation Research, vol. 167, no. 5, pp. 600–605, 2007.
[183]  I. Uloziene, V. Uloza, E. Gradauskiene, and V. Saferis, “Assessment of potential effects of the electromagnetic fields of mobile phones on hearing,” BMC Public Health, vol. 5, article 39, 2005.
[184]  G. Stefanics, L. Kellenyi, F. Molnar, G. Kubinyi, G. Thuroczy, and I. Hernadi, “Short GSM mobile phone exposure does not alter human auditory brainstem response,” BMC Public Health, vol. 7, p. 325, 2007.
[185]  R. L. Carpenter, “Ocular effects of microwave radiation,” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 1048–1057, 1979.
[186]  O. Goldwein and D. J. Aframian, “The influence of handheld mobile phones on human parotid gland secretion,” Oral Diseases, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 146–150, 2010.
[187]  A. Spector, “Oxidative stress-induced cataract: mechanism of action,” FASEB Journal, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1173–1182, 1995.
[188]  C. Graham and M. R. Cook, “Human sleep in 60?Hz magnetic fields,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 20, pp. 277–283, 1999.
[189]  T. Abelin, E. Altpeter, and M. R??sli, “Sleep disturbances in the vicinity of the short-wave broadcast transmitter Schwarzenburg,” Somnologie, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 203–209, 2005.
[190]  E.-S. Altpeter, M. R??sli, M. Battaglia, D. Pfluger, C. E. Minder, and T. Abelin, “Effect of short-wave (6–22 MHz) magnetic fields on sleep quality and melatonin cycle in humans: the Schwarzenburg shut-down study,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 142–150, 2006.
[191]  C. Wiholm, A. Lowden, L. Hillert et al., “The effects of 884 MHz GSM wireless communication signals on spatial memory performance—an experimental provocation study,” in Proceedings of the Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS '07), pp. 526–529, Beijing, China, August 2007.
[192]  K. Mann and J. R?schke, “Sleep under exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields,” Sleep Medicine Reviews, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 95–107, 2004.
[193]  N. M. Maalej and C. A. Belhadj, “External and internal electromagnetic exposures of workers near high voltage power lines,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research C, vol. 19, pp. 191–205, 2011.
[194]  T. Yoshikawa, M. Tanigawa, T. Tanigawa, A. Imai, H. Hongo, and M. Kondo, “Enhancement of nitric oxide generation by low frequency electromagnetic field,” Pathophysiology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 131–135, 2000.
[195]  M. Yariktas, F. Doner, F. Ozguner, O. Gokalp, H. Dogru, and N. Delibas, “Nitric oxide level in the nasal and sinus mucosa after exposure to electromagnetic field,” Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 713–716, 2005.
[196]  I. Meral, H. Mert, N. Mert et al., “Effects of 900-MHz electromagnetic field emitted from cellular phone on brain oxidative stress and some vitamin levels of guinea pigs,” Brain Research, vol. 1169, no. 1, pp. 120–124, 2007.
[197]  M. K. Irmak, E. Fadillio?lu, M. Güle?, H. Erdo?an, M. Ya?murca, and ?. Akyol, “Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular telephone on the oxidant and antioxidant levels in rabbits,” Cell Biochemistry and Function, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 279–283, 2002.
[198]  G. Güler, N. Seyhan, and A. Aricio?lu, “Effects of static and 50 Hz alternating electric fields on superoxide dismutase activity and TBARS levels in guinea pigs,” General Physiology and Biophysics, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 177–193, 2006.
[199]  R. J. Reiter, “Static and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: reported effects on the circadian production of melatonin,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 394–404, 1993.
[200]  C. F. Blackman, “ELF effects on calcium homeostasis,” in Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields: The Question of Cancer, B. W. Wilson, R. G. Stevens, and L. E. Anderson, Eds., pp. 187–208, Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio, USA, 1990.
[201]  C. F. Blackman, S. G. Benane, D. J. Elliott, D. E. House, and M. M. Pollock, “Influence of electromagnetic fields on the efflux of calcium ions from brain tissue in vitro: a three-model analysis consistent with the frequency response up to 510?Hz,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 215–227, 1988.
[202]  C. F. Blackman, L. S. Kinney, D. E. House, and W. T. Joines, “Multiple power-density windows and their possible origin,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 115–128, 1989.
[203]  C. F. Blackman, S. G. Benane, and D. E. House, “The influence of temperature during electric- and magnetic-field-induced alteration of calcium-ion release from in vitro brain tissue,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 173–182, 1991.
[204]  R. Goodman and M. Blank, “Magnetic field stress induces expression of hsp70,” Cell Stress Chaperones, vol. 3, pp. 79–88, 1998.
[205]  D. Kültz, “Molecular and evolutionary basis of the cellular stress response,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 67, pp. 225–257, 2005.
[206]  D. de Pomerai, C. Daniells, H. David et al., “Non-thermal heat-shock response to microwaves,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6785, pp. 417–418, 2000.
[207]  J. Czyz, K. Guan, Q. Zeng et al., “High frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM signals) affect gene expression levels in tumor suppressor p53-deficient embryonic stem cells,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 296–307, 2004.
[208]  R. Goodman, M. Blank, H. Lin et al., “Increased levels of hsp70 transcripts induced when cells are exposed to low frequency electromagnetic fields,” Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 115–120, 1994.
[209]  J. Friedman, S. Kraus, Y. Hauptman, Y. Schiff, and R. Seger, “Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequencies,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 405, no. 3, pp. 559–568, 2007.
[210]  H. Lin, M. Blank, and R. Goodman, “A magnetic field responsive domain in the human HSP70 promoter,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 75, pp. 170–176, 1999.
[211]  H. Lin, M. Blank, K. Rossol-Haseroth, and R. Goodman, “Regulating genes with electromagnetic response elements,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 81, pp. 143–148, 2001.
[212]  T. Taira, Y. Negishi, F. Kihara, S. M. M. Iguchi-Ariga, and H. Ariga, “c-myc protein complex binds to two sites in human hsp70 promoter region,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1130, no. 2, pp. 166–174, 1992.
[213]  J. Topol, D. M. Ruden, and C. S. Parker, “Sequences required for in vitro transcriptional activation of a Drosophila hsp 70 gene,” Cell, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 527–537, 1985.
[214]  G. J. Hook, P. Zhang, I. Lagroye et al., “Measurement of DNA damage and apoptosis in Molt-4 cells after in vitro exposure to radio frequency radiation,” Radiation Research, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 193–200, 2004.
[215]  D. Leszczynski, R. Nylund, S. Joenv??r?, and J. Reivinen, “Applicability of discovery science approach to determine biological effects of mobile phone radiation,” Proteomics, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 426–431, 2004.
[216]  M. Jin, H. Lin, L. Han et al., “Biological and technical variables in myc expression in HL60 cells exposed to 60?Hz electromagnetic fields,” Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 111–120, 1997.
[217]  L. S. Erdreich, M. D. van Kerkhove, C. G. Scrafford et al., “Factors that influence the radiofrequency power output of GSM mobile phones,” Radiation Research, vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 253–261, 2007.
[218]  S. Sarkar, K. Chandra, R. C. Sawhney, and P. K. Banerjee, “Effect of radiofrequency radiation on biological system,” in Topics in Electromagnetic Waves: Devices, Effects and Applications, J. Behari, Ed., pp. 42–73, Anamaya Publishers, New Delhi, India, 2005.
[219]  S. L?nn, U. Forssén, P. Vecchia, A. Ahlbom, and M. Feychting, “Output power levels from mobile phones in different geographical areas; implications for exposure assessment,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 769–772, 2004.
[220]  A. Christ and N. Kuster, “Differences in RF energy absorption in the heads of adults and children,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. S31–S44, 2005.
[221]  A. Huss, M. Egger, K. Hug, K. Huwiler-Müntener, and M. R??sli, “Source of funding and results of studies of health effects of mobile phone use: systematic review of experimental studies,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 2007.


comments powered by Disqus