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Photocatalytic Degradation of Indigo Carmine Dye Using Calcium Oxide

DOI: 10.1155/2014/530570

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Calcium oxide was used as photocatalyst for the degradation of indigo carmine dye solution in the visible, long UV, and short UV radiation. We have investigated the effectiveness of degradation of indigo carmine dye solution at pH 9 and 12 using calcium oxide with the particle size of 30–36?nm by varying the concentration, dose of adsorbent, and duration. It has been found that the degradation of indigo carmine dye is effective at pH = 9, when 0.12?g of calcium oxide was used. The nature of interaction between calcium oxide and indigo carmine dye was discussed. 1. Introduction The water bodies are continuously polluted due to the unscientific methods adopted by the chemical, textile, paper, and pulp industries, and so forth, during the discharge of toxic and hazardous chemicals [1–5]. Complexity of the dye molecules does not favour the natural process of degradation and also during certain instances incomplete degradation or transformation may generate carcinogenic byproducts [6–9]. Therefore, physical, chemical, and biological methods have been developed for the treatment of dye effluents from industries [10]. Precipitation, coagulation, floatation, and oxidizing agents have been used for the treatment of different types of dyes. Major disadvantages of chemical methods are that they require expensive chemicals and the products generated after dye treatment are also polluting in nature [11, 12]. Biological methods to degrade dyes include enzymes and microorganisms and are found to be effective but the difficulty is to scale up the process [13]. Membrane-filtration processes, electrodialysis, and adsorption involve physical processes which are cheaper compared to biological methods but the maintenance of membranes is expensive [14–16]. Electrochemical process, electrokinetic coagulation, irradiation with light, and photochemical oxidation have been employed for the removal of dye effluents [17]. Major limitations of the above methods are the operating cost, generation of byproducts, and the process of regeneration of the starting compounds which are difficult or tedious [10]. Therefore, degradation of dyes into its smaller fragments of less toxic organic compounds is one of the major challenges faced by scientists, technologists, and researchers across the world. Development of catalysts which can interact with sunlight and degrade the toxic dyes into its low molecular weight colourless and nontoxic fragments which can be discharged into the water bodies without affecting their physicochemical properties is the major objective. Photocatalytic degradation

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