Diabetes mellitus is associated with dysregulation of adipose tissue metabolism and increased level of serum lipids. In our previous work we found that Securigera securidaca decreases cholesterol level in blood of diabetic rats. The present study was carried out to further investigate the effects of this plant on lipid metabolism, lipolysis, and adipogenesis, in diabetic rats. Female Wistar rats were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Retroperitoneal adipose tissue was removed from diabetic animals after seven days of streptozotocin injection. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of S. securidaca seeds (100–800？μg/mL) on adipose tissue lipolysis was evaluated in ex vivo condition. Also, to evaluate adipogenesis, preadipocytes were isolated from adipose tissue and differentiated to adipocytes in the presence of the extract. The extract at concentration of 800？μg/mL decreased both basal and catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis . Incubation of differentiating preadipocytes with 800？μg/mL of S. securidaca extract decreased intracellular lipid droplet accumulation as evaluated with Oil Red O staining . The extract even at high concentrations had no effect on viability of preadipocytes. In conclusion, S. securidaca decreases lipolysis and adipogenesis without cytotoxicity, which makes it a good candidate for management of dyslipidemia and reduction of cardiovascular risks in diabetes. 1. Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of hospitalization and still is one of the main diseases causing death and disability. The number of diabetic patients is markedly increasing in the world. According to the World Health Organization reports (October, 2013), 347 million people suffer from diabetes worldwide and without urgent action, it will be the 7th cause of mortality in 2030. Diabetes is associated with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism and over time leads to microvascular and macrovascular complications such as cardiovascular diseases . Dyslipidemia, a main risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is often present in diabetic patients. Diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by increased serum triglyceride and low density lipoprotein and decreased high density lipoprotein . Patients with type-1 diabetes also undergo dysregulation of adipose tissue metabolism (lipolysis and lipogenesis) due to insulin deficiency. Currently, statins, fibrates, niacin, and bile acid binding sequestrants are the most widely used medications for dyslipidemia. However, the clinical uses of these drugs are accompanied with unpleasant side effects
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