All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Predictors of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Commercial Minibus Drivers in Accra Metropolis, Ghana

DOI: 10.1155/2014/384279

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Background. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and predictors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among a sample of commercial minibus drivers in the Accra Metropolis of Ghana. Methods. The participating drivers ( ) were recruited from various lorry terminals and assessed by using a semistructured questionnaire that included the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Results. Of the 148 drivers, 116 (78.4%) reported having WMSDs during the previous 12 months. The prevalence of the various WMSD domains was low back pain (58.8%), neck pain (25%), upper back pain (22.3%), shoulder pain (18.2%), knee pain (14.9%), ankle pain (9.5%), wrist pain (7.4%), elbow pain (4.7%), and hip/thigh pain (2.7%). Multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for possible confounders showed that less physical activity (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 1.5–16.5; ), driving more than 12 hours per day (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.1–7.8; ), and driving at least 5 days per week (OR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.4–9.4; ) were significantly associated with WMSDs among this cohort of drivers. Conclusion. These modifiable factors may be targets for preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of WMSDs among occupational minibus drivers in Ghana. 1. Introduction Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) include a wide range of musculoskeletal diseases and syndromes, which are usually associated with pain and discomfort. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are defined as impairments of the musculoskeletal system (including nerves and blood vessels) caused or aggravated primarily by work itself or by the environment in which work is performed [1]. They occur predominantly in the back, neck, upper extremities, and in some cases, lower extremities, causing significant pain and discomfort with disability and hospitalization (in severe cases). Data show that worldwide, WMSDs account for 42%–58% of all work-related illnesses [2, 3] and 40% of all work-related health costs [2]. WMSDs are a serious public health problem given the high cost to the injured worker, his or her family, employers, and society to a large extent. The aetiology of WMSDs is multifactorial. The risk factors include awkward posture, manual handling, heavy lifting, strenuous task, and repetitive actions, while demographics, workload, and psychosocial factors are known to influence the development and progression of these disorders [2]. Environmental factors (such as temperature, noise, and light complaints) have also been cited as important risk factors of WMSDs [3]. Driving as a profession involves routine

References

[1]  I. L. Nunes, “FAST ERGO-X: a tool for ergonomic auditing and work-related musculoskeletal disorders prevention,” Work, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 133–148, 2009.
[2]  J. Abledu and G. Abledu, “Multiple logistic regression analysis of predictors of musculoskeletal disorders and disability among bank workers in Kumasi, Ghana,” Journal of Ergonomics, vol. 2, article 111, 2012.
[3]  N. Magnavita, M. Elovainio, I. de Nardis, T. Heponiemi, and A. Bergamaschi, “Environmental discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders,” Occupational Medicine, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 196–201, 2011.
[4]  N. Gkikas, Automotive Ergonomics: Driver-Vehicle Interaction, CRC Press, 2012.
[5]  M. J. M. Robb and N. J. Mansfield, “Self-reported musculoskeletal problems amongst professional truck drivers,” Ergonomics, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 814–827, 2007.
[6]  M. Massaccesi, A. Pagnotta, A. Soccetti, M. Masali, C. Masiero, and F. Greco, “Investigation of work-related disorders in truck drivers using RULA method,” Applied Ergonomics, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 303–307, 2003.
[7]  J. Hoy, N. Mubarak, S. Nelson et al., “Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 284, no. 3–5, pp. 933–946, 2005.
[8]  G. P. Y. Szeto and P. Lam, “Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in urban bus drivers of Hong Kong,” Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 181–198, 2007.
[9]  R. K. Raanaas and D. Anderson, “A questionnaire survey of Norwegian taxi drivers' musculoskeletal health, and work-related risk factors,” International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 38, no. 3-4, pp. 280–290, 2008.
[10]  J.-C. Chen, W.-R. Chang, W. Chang, et al., “Occupational factors associated with low back pain in urban taxi drivers,” Occupational Medicine, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 535–540, 2005.
[11]  J.-C. Chen, J. T. Dennerlein, T.-S. Shih, et al., “Knee pain and driving duration: a secondary analysis of the Taxi Drivers' Health Study,” The American Journal of Public Health, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 575–581, 2004.
[12]  D. Alperovitch-Najenson, Y. Santo, Y. Masharawi, M. Katz-Leurer, D. Ushvaev, and L. Kalichman, “Low back pain among professional bus drivers: ergonomic and occupational-psychosocial risk factors,” Israel Medical Association Journal, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 26–31, 2010.
[13]  J. M. Porter and D. E. Gyi, “The prevalence of musculoskeletal troubles among car drivers,” Occupational Medicine, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 4–12, 2002.
[14]  S. B. M. Tamrin, K. Yokoyama, J. Jalaludin et al., “The association between risk factors and low back pain among commercial vehicle drivers in peninsular Malaysia: a preliminary result,” Industrial Health, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 268–278, 2007.
[15]  N. J. Mansfield and J. M. Marshall, “Symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders in stage rally drivers and co-drivers,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 314–320, 2001.
[16]  J. Abledu, E. Offei, and G. Abledu, “Occupational and personal determinants of musculoskeletal disorders among urban taxi drivers in Ghana,” International Scholarly Research Notices, vol. 2014, Article ID 517259, 5 pages, 2014.
[17]  M. L. Magnusson, M. H. Pope, D. G. Wilder, B. Areskoug, and A. I. King, “Are occupational drivers at an increased risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders?” Spine, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 710–717, 1996.
[18]  M. Bovenzi, F. Rui, C. Negro et al., “An epidemiological study of low back pain in professional drivers,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 298, no. 3, pp. 514–539, 2006.
[19]  W. Albert, D. Everson, M. Rae, et al., “Biomechanical and ergonomic assessment of urban transit operators,” Work, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 33–44, 2014.
[20]  I. Kuorinka, B. Jonsson, A. Kilbom et al., “Standardised Nordic questionnaires for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms,” Applied Ergonomics, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 233–237, 1987.
[21]  J. O. Crawford, “The Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire,” Occupational Medicine, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 300–301, 2007.
[22]  C. E. Dickinson, K. Campion, A. F. Foster, S. J. Newman, A. M. T. O'Rourke, and P. G. Thomas, “Questionnaire development: an examination of the Nordic Musculoskeletal questionnaire,” Applied Ergonomics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 197–201, 1992.
[23]  A. O. Akinpelu, O. O. Oyewole, A. C. Odole, and R. O. Olukoya, “Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and health seeking behaviour among occupational drivers in Ibadan, Nigeria,” African Journal of Biomedical Research, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 89–94, 2011.
[24]  A. A. Rufa'i, I. Sa'idu, R. Ahmad, et al., “Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain among professional drivers in Kano, Nigeria,” Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 2013.
[25]  E. M. Langballe, S. T. Innstrand, K. A. Hagtvet, E. Falkum, and O. G. Aasland, “The relationship between burnout and musculoskeletal pain in seven Norwegian occupational groups,” Work, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 179–188, 2009.
[26]  V. H. Hildebrandt, P. M. Bongers, J. Dul, F. J. H. van Dijk, and H. C. G. Kemper, “The relationship between leisure time, physical activities and musculoskeletal symptoms and disability in worker populations,” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol. 73, no. 8, pp. 507–518, 2000.
[27]  F. J. Penedo and J. R. Dahn, “Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity,” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 189–193, 2005.
[28]  T. I. L. Nilsen, A. Holtermann, and P. J. Mork, “Physical exercise, body mass index, and risk of chronic pain in the low back and neck/shoulders: longitudinal data from the nord-tr?ndelag health study,” The American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 174, no. 3, pp. 267–273, 2011.
[29]  T. Morken, T. Riise, B. Moen et al., “Low back pain and widespread pain predict sickness absence among industrial workers,” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 4, article 1, pp. 1–8, 2003.
[30]  R. D'Onise, E. M. Shanahan, T. Gill, and C. L. Hill, “Does leisure time physical activity protect against shoulder pain at work?” Occupational Medicine, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 383–388, 2010.
[31]  H. Miranda, E. Viikari-Juntura, R. Martikainen, E. Takala, and H. Riihim?ki, “Physical exercise and musculoskeletal pain among forest industry workers,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 239–246, 2001.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus