全部 标题 作者
关键词 摘要

Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) Invasion Alters Decomposer Fauna and Plant Litter Decomposition in a Temperate Xerophytic Deciduous Forest

DOI: 10.1155/2014/519297

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Plant invasions may alter the soil system by changing litter quality and quantity, thereby affecting soil community and ecosystem processes. We investigated the effect of Tamarix ramosissima invasion on the decomposer fauna and litter decomposition process, as well as the importance of litter quality in decomposition. Litter decomposition and decomposer communities were evaluated in two monospecific saltcedar forests and two native forests in Argentina, in litterbags containing either local litter (saltcedar or dominant native species) or a control litter. Saltcedar invasion produced an increase in Collembola, Acari, and total mesofauna abundance, regardless of the litter type. Control litter decomposition was higher in the native forest than in the saltcedar forest, showing that increased abundance of decomposer fauna does not necessarily accelerate decomposition processes. Local litter decomposition was not different between forests, suggesting that decomposer fauna of both ecosystems is adapted to efficiently decompose the autochthonous litter. Our results suggest that the introduction of a resource with higher quality than the local one has a negative effect on decomposition in both ecosystems, which is more pronounced in the invaded forest than in the native forest. This finding stresses the low plasticity of saltcedar decomposer community to adapt to short-term environmental changes. 1. Introduction Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), a tree native to Eurasia, was introduced to North America, Australia, and Mexico in the mid-1800s for use as an ornamental plant, in windbreaks, and to prevent erosion in arid regions [1, 2]. In the last 50 years, saltcedar has spread rapidly along many rivers in North America [1]. In Argentina, the presence of four species of Tamarix has been confirmed: T. gallica L., T. ramosissima Ledebour, T. chinensis Loureiro, and T. parviflora DC. The first three species grow spontaneously and frequently invade natural and seminatural environments, colonizing riparian habitats in arid and semiarid continental zones, and coastal areas. Recent surveys have shown that the genus distribution covers a strip between 49°07′ and 22°91′S and 70°03′ and 57°10′W [3]. Saltcedar invasions are associated with several negative effects that can alter species composition and ecosystems processes. Several impacts have been attributed to saltcedar, such as displacement of native species [1], decline in ecological functions [4], increased frequency of fire [5], lowering of water tables, lower river flow rates and lake levels [1], and soil salinization


[1]  E. Zavaleta, “The economic value of controlling an invasive shrub,” Ambio, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 462–467, 2000.
[2]  T. A. Kennedy and S. E. Hobbie, “Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream,” Freshwater Biology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 65–76, 2004.
[3]  E. Natale, Evaluación del Riesgo de invasión por Tamariscos en ambientes naturales y seminaturales de la República Argentina [Ph.D. thesis], Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Río Cuarto, Argentina, 2010.
[4]  E. P. Glenn and P. L. Nagler, “Comparative ecophysiology of Tamarix ramosissima and native trees in western U.S. riparian zones,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 419–446, 2005.
[5]  J. Lovich, “A brief overview of the impact of tamarisk infestation on native plants and animals,” in Proceedings of the Saltcedar Management Workshop, J. DiTomaso and C. E. Bell, Eds., pp. 13–15, University of California Cooperative Extension, Hollister, Calif, USA, 1996.
[6]  C. G. Ladenburger, A. L. Hild, D. J. Kazmer, and L. C. Munn, “Soil salinity patterns in Tamarix invasions in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 111–128, 2006.
[7]  C. J. De Loach, R. L. Carruthers, J. E. Lovich, T. L. Dudley, and S. D. Smith, “Ecological interactions in the biological control of salt cedar (Tamarix spp.) in the United States: towards a new understanding,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Biological Control on Weeds, pp. 819–873, Montana State University Press, Bozeman, Mont, USA, 2000.
[8]  J. C. Stromberg, M. K. Chew, P. L. Nagler, and E. P. Glenn, “Changing perceptions of change: the role of scientists in tamarix and river management,” Restoration Ecology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 177–186, 2009.
[9]  C. Pritekel, A. Whittemore-Olson, N. Snow, and J. C. Moore, “Impacts from invasive plant species and their control on the plant community and belowground ecosystem at Rocky Mountain National Park, USA,” Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 132–141, 2006.
[10]  J. C. Moore, E. L. Berlow, D. C. Coleman et al., “Detritus, trophic dynamics and biodiversity,” Ecology Letters, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 584–600, 2004.
[11]  R. J. Standish, “Impact of an invasive clonal herb on epigaeic invertebrates in forest remnants in New Zealand,” Biological Conservation, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 49–58, 2004.
[12]  J. G. Ehrenfeld and N. Scott, “Invasive species and the soil: effects on organisms and ecosystem processes,” Ecological Applications, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1259–1260, 2001.
[13]  J. Belnap, S. L. Phillips, S. K. Sherrod, and A. Moldenke, “Soil biota can change after exotic plant invasion: does this affect ecosystem processes?” Ecology, vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 3007–3017, 2005.
[14]  B. E. Wolfe and J. N. Klironomos, “Breaking new ground: soil communities and exotic plant invasion,” BioScience, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 477–487, 2005.
[15]  A. M. Keith, R. van der Wal, R. W. Brooker, G. H. R. Osler, S. J. Chapman, and D. F. R. P. Burslem, “Birch invasion of heather moorland increases nematode diversity and trophic complexity,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 3421–3430, 2006.
[16]  J. G. Ehrenfeld, P. Kourtev, and W. Huang, “Changes in soil functions following invasions of exotic understory plants in deciduous forests,” Ecological Applications, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1287–1300, 2001.
[17]  I. W. Ashton, L. A. Hyatt, K. M. Howe, J. Gurevitch, and M. T. Lerdau, “Invasive species accelerate decomposition and litter nitrogen loss in a mixed deciduous forest,” Ecological Applications, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1263–1272, 2005.
[18]  G. González and T. R. Seastedt, “Soil fauna and plant litter decomposition in tropical and subalpine forests,” Ecology, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 955–964, 2001.
[19]  R. Aerts, “Climate, leaf litter chemistry and leaf litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems: a triangular relationship,” Oikos, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 439–449, 1997.
[20]  P. Lavelle, E. Blanchart, A. Martin et al., “A hierarchical model for decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems: application to soils of the humid tropics,” Biotropica, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 130–150, 1993.
[21]  M. J. Swift, O. W. Heal, and J. M. Anderson, Decomposition in Terrestrial Ecosystems, vol. 5 of Studies in Ecology, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 1979.
[22]  B. R. Taylor, D. Parkinson, and W. F. J. Parsons, “Nitrogen and lignin content as predictors of litter decay rates: a microcosm test,” Ecology, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 97–104, 1989.
[23]  J. M. Melillo, J. D. Aber, and J. F. Muratore, “Nitrogen and lignin control of hardwood leaf litter decomposition dynamics.,” Ecology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 621–626, 1982.
[24]  C. E. Prescott, “Do rates of litter decomposition tell us anything we really need to know?” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 220, no. 1–3, pp. 66–74, 2005.
[25]  G. Barajas-Guzmán and J. Alvarez-Sánchez, “The relationships between litter fauna and rates of litter decomposition in a tropical rain forest,” Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 91–100, 2003.
[26]  D. H. Wall and J. C. Moore, “Interactions underground: soil biodiversity, mutualism, and ecosystem processes,” BioScience, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 109–117, 1999.
[27]  R. A. Hansen, “Red oak litter promotes a microarthropod functional group that accelerates its decomposition,” Plant and Soil, vol. 209, no. 1, pp. 37–45, 1999.
[28]  J. J. Cantero, “Los humedales del centro sur de Córdoba. Parte B. Comunidades vegetales y aspectos fitosociológicos relacionados,” in Aguas Superficiales y Subterráneas en el sur de Córdoba: una perspectiva geoambiental, M. Blarasin, S. Degiovanni, A. Cabrera, and M. Villegas, Eds., pp. 283–294, UniRío, Río Cuarto, Argentina, 2005.
[29]  Soil Survey Staff, Keys to Soil Taxonomy, USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC, USA, 11th edition, 2010.
[30]  DACyTSEM, Los Suelos. Nivel de Reconocimiento 1:500.000, Agencia Córdoba e INTA Manfredi, Córdoba, Argentina, 2003.
[31]  Servicio de Agrometeorología UNRC, “Facultad de Agronomφa y Veterinaria,” Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Argentina, 2010.
[32]  L. Sacchi, Impacto de los bosques de tamarisco (Tamarix ramosissima) sobre el sistema suelo en el sur de la provincia de Córdoba [Ph.D. thesis], Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Río Cuarto, Argentina, 2009.
[33]  L. Calle, Resumen de Historia de Río Cuarto, Puma, Río Cuarto, Argentina, 1977.
[34]  D. A. Marini, Bases para la restauración de sitios afectados por tamarisco (Tamarix ramosissima) en el sur de la provincia de Córdoba [Ph.D. thesis], Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Río Cuarto, Argentina, 2009.
[35]  D. Coleman, D. A. Crossley Jr., and P. F. Hendrix, Fundamentals of Soil Ecology, Elsevier Academic Press, California, Calif, USA, 2nd edition, 2004.
[36]  A. Domínguez, J. C. Bedano, and A. R. Becker, “Negative effects of no-till on soil macrofauna and litter decomposition in Argentina as compared with natural grasslands,” Soil and Tillage Research, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 51–59, 2010.
[37]  J. M. F. Johnson, N. W. Barbour, and S. L. Weyers, “Chemical composition of crop biomass impacts its decomposition,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 155–162, 2007.
[38]  J. C. Bedano, M. P. Cantú, and M. E. Doucet, “Influence of three different land management practices on soil mite (Arachnida: Acari) densities in relation to a natural soil,” Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 293–304, 2006.
[39]  S. Scheu, D. Albers, J. Alphei et al., “The soil fauna community in pure and mixed stands of beech and spruce of different age: trophic structure and structuring forces,” Oikos, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 225–238, 2003.
[40]  S. Scheu and M. Falca, “The soil food web of two beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) of contrasting humus type: stable isotope analysis of a macro- and a mesofauna-dominated community,” Oecologia, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 285–296, 2000.
[41]  D. A. Johansen, Plant Microtechnique VI-VII, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1940.
[42]  J. A. di Rienzo, A. W. Guzmán, and F. Casanoves, “A multiple-comparisons method based on the distribution of the root node distance of a binary tree,” Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 129–142, 2002.
[43]  M. M. Rahman and Z. Govindarajulu, “A modification of the test of Shapiro and Wilk for normality,” Journal of Applied Statistics, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 219–235, 1997.
[44]  J. A. di Rienzo, F. Casanoves, M. G. Balzarini, L. González, M. Tablada, and C. W. Robledo, “InfoStat versión 2012. Grupo InfoStat,” FCA, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, 2012.
[45]  S. Gillet and J. Ponge, “Changes in species assemblages and diets of Collembola along a gradient of metal pollution,” Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 127–138, 2003.
[46]  T. C. Robson, A. C. Baker, and B. R. Murray, “Differences in leaf-litter invertebrate assemblages between radiata pine plantations and neighbouring native eucalypt woodland,” Austral Ecology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 368–376, 2009.
[47]  J. P. Grime, Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1979.
[48]  M. Huston, “A general hypothesis of species diversity,” The American Naturalist, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 81–101, 1979.
[49]  J. Belnap and S. L. Phillips, “Soil biota in an ungrazed grassland: response to annual grass (Bromus tectorum) invasion,” Ecological Applications, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1261–1275, 2001.
[50]  N. Kaneko and E. F. Salamanca, “Mixed leaf litter effects on decomposition rates and soil microarthropod communities in an oak-pine stand in Japan,” Ecological Research, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 131–138, 1999.
[51]  D. A. Wardle, Communities and Ecosystems: Linking the Aboveground and Belowground Components, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 2002.
[52]  T. M. Tibbets and M. C. Molles Jr., “C:N:P stoichiometry of dominant riparian trees and arthropods along the Middle Rio Grande,” Freshwater Biology, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 1882–1894, 2005.
[53]  C. R. Whitcraft, L. A. Levin, D. Talley, and J. A. Crooks, “Utilization of invasive tamarisk by salt marsh consumers,” Oecologia, vol. 158, no. 2, pp. 259–272, 2008.
[54]  G. Loranger, J. Ponge, D. Imbert, and P. Lavelle, “Leaf decomposition in two semi-evergreen tropical forests: influence of litter quality,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 247–252, 2002.
[55]  M. J. I. Briones and P. Ineson, “Decomposition of eucalyptus leaves in litter mixtures,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 28, no. 10-11, pp. 1381–1388, 1996.
[56]  S. D. Graves and A. M. Shapiro, “Exotics as host plants of the California butterfly fauna,” Biological Conservation, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 413–433, 2003.
[57]  R. J. Hobbs, E. Higgs, and J. A. Harris, “Novel ecosystems: implications for conservation and restoration,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 599–605, 2009.


comments powered by Disqus