All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Extraction of Energy Resources—Exploitation of the Canadian Oil Sands

DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.59046, PP. 507-519

Keywords: Bitumen, Oil Sand, Solvent Extraction, Thermal Recovery, Wind Energy

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Considerable reserves of oil sands are located in northernAlberta. Exploitation of these reserves has been instrumental in the development of theAlbertaeconomy. Mining and processing techniques, including “in situ” processing and surface mining/aqueous treatment, are presented. Oil assisted flotation and solvent extraction are discussed as possible future processing alternatives. Subsequent froth treatment and refining methods are described. The rapid expansion of bitumen processing in theFort McMurrayarea has drastically affectedAlberta’s economic, political and social policy. Corresponding strain has been placed on the regional ecosystem. A comparison between wind and bitumen as sources of energy is offered.


[1]  Gray, M.R. (1994) Upgrading of Oilsands Bitumen and Heavy Oil. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 348-352.
[2]  Best, J. and Hoberg, G. (2008) Alberta’s Oil Sands: Key Issues and Impacts. Economy, Trade and Finance, 3, 19-21.
[3]  Takamura, K. (1985) Physico-Chemical Characterization of Athabasca Oil Sand and Its Significance to Bitumen Recovery. AOSTRA Journal of Research, 2, 1-10.
[4]  Schramm, L., Stasiuk, E., Yarranton, H., Maini, B. and Shelfantook, B. (2003) Temperature Effects from the Conditioning and Flotation of Bitumen from Oil Sands in Terms of oil Recovery and Physical Properties. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 42, 55-61.
[5]  Czarnecki, J., Radoev, B., Schramm, L.L. and Slavchev, R. (2005) On the Nature of the Athabasca Oil Sands. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 114-115, 53-60.
[6]  Schramm, L., Stasium, E. and Turner, D. (2003) The Influence of Interfacial Tension in the Recovery of Bitumen by Water-Based Conditioning and Flotation of Athabasca Oil Sands. Fuel Processing Technology, 80, 101-118.
[7]  Elliott, A., Eastwood, J. and Magennis, L. (2013) Evolution and Application of Geoscience Technology to Integrated Reservoir Characterisation for Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery. Proceedings of the 6th International Petroleum Technology Conference, 26-28 March 2013, Beijing, 6-11.
[8]  Su, L., Xu, Z. and Masliyah, J. (2005) Role of Oily Bubbles in Enhancing Bitumen Flotation. Symposium of the Centenary of Flotation, Brisbane, 15-18 October 2013, 699-706.
[9]  Smith, R. and Schramm, L. (1992) The Influence of Mineral Components on the Generation of Natural Surfactants from Athabasca Oil Sands in the Alkaline Hot Water Process. Fuel Processing Technology, 30, 1-14.
[10]  Wallwork, V., Xu, Z. and Masliyah, J. (2004) Processibility of Athabasca Oil Sand Using a Laboratory Hydrotransport Extraction System. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 82, 687-695.
[11]  Finch, J.A. and Kuan, S.H. (2013) Air-Assisted Solvent Extraction: Scale-Up Attempt with the Jameson Cell. Proceedings of the 10th International Mineral Processing Conference, Santiago, 15-18 October 2013, 15-18.
[12]  Brame, S.E., Castle, J.W., Fuwami, O.K. and Falta, R.W. (2006) History Matching of Heavy Oil Production for Comparing New Approaches to Generating Reservoir Property Distribution. Proceedings of SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 17-21 April 2004, 93-96.
[13]  Shelfantook, W.E. (2004) Perspective on the Selection of Froth Treatment Processes. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 82, 704-709.
[14]  Villarroel, T. and Hernandez, R.T. (2013) Technological Developments for Enhancing Extra Heavy Oil Productivity. Proceedings of the AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition, Pittsburgh, 19-22 May 2013, 1-41.
[15]  Hashemi, R., Nassar, N.N. and Almao, P.P. (2013) Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery by in Situ Prepared Ultradispersed Multimetallic Nanoparticles: A Study of Hot Fluid Flooding for Athabasca Bitumen Recovery. Energy Fuels, 27, 2194-2201.
[16]  Bennett, B., Jiang, C., Snowdon, L.R. and Larter, S.R. (2014) A Practical Method for the Separation of High Quality Heavy Oil and Bitumen Samples from Oil Reservoir Cores for Physical and Chemical Property Determination. Fuel, 116, 208-213.
[17]  Castle, J.W., Falta, R.W., Dinwiddie, C.L., Brame, S. and Bridges, R.A. (2002) Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application for Heavy Oil Sands. Final Report for USDOE, Golder Associates Ltd., Edmonton.
[18]  Hawes, R.I., Dawe, R.A. and Evans, R.N. (1997) The Release of Solution Gas from Water Flooded Residual Oil. Society Petroleum Engineering Journal, 2, 379-388.
[19]  Falcone, G., Hewitt, G.F. and Alimonti, C. (2009) Multiphase Flow Metering. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 77-84.


comments powered by Disqus