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Bioavailability of Chlorpyrifos in Wheat Plants (Triticum aestivun)

DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.58069, PP. 660-667

Keywords: Soil, Chlorpyrifos, Wheat, Persistence, Bioavailability

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Abstract:

Adsorption processes of chlorpyrifos in two Chilean agro soils (Calera: C; San Esteban: SE) in relation with the bioaccumulation in wheat plants (Triticum aestivun) were studied. RP-HPLC method was developed to determine the chlorpyrifos content in soils, roots and seedling tissues. The two soils showed high adsorption capacity (C = 78%, SE = 92%). The values are not in relation with the contents of organic matter (C = 3.9% and SE = 2.0%) and clay (C = 12.7% and SE = 10.1%) determined in the soils. Persistence and mobility of chlorpyrifos in the soils were estimated from halflife values (Csoil = 23 d, SEsoil = 14 d) and the Guss index (Csoil = 0.89, SEsoil = 0.25) respectively. These values are in the range of non-leaching compounds, and suggest that there should be no pollutant in the ground water. Wheat plants grown in both soils incubated with chlorpyrifos bioaccumulate residues in roots and seedling tissues. Root tissues showed the greatest contents (C = 22.3 mg/k. f. wt; SE = 51.8 mg/kg. f. wt.). Germination and growth of wheat young plants were not inhibited for the contents in the tissues. A relation between the levels of chlorpyrifos residues in the soils and the bioaccumulation in wheat tissues was estimated from the BAI parameter. Values showed that the bioaccumulation is dependent on the residues contents in soils. These results suggest that bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in wheat plants may be a harmful pollutant for mammals if it remains stable at all growth stage of the plant. Further research should be considered to see if bioavailability in forage and/or grain can occur.

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