All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Trihalomethanes in Comerio Drinking Water and Their Reduction by Nanostructured Materials

DOI: 10.4236/snl.2014.42005, PP. 31-41

Keywords: Trihalomethanes, Disinfection By-Products (DBPs), Graphene, Mordenite, Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination of drinking water is an issue which has drawn significant scientific attention due to the possible adverse effects that these compounds have on human health and the formation of another DBPs. Factors that affect the formation of DBPs include: chlorine dose and residue, contact time, temperature, pH and natural organic matter (NOM). The most frequently detected DBPs in drinking water are trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). The MCLs are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for drinking water quality established in Stage 1, Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (DBPR), and they limit the amount of potentially hazardous substances that are allowed in drinking water. The water quality data for THMs were evaluated in the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA). During this evaluation, the THMs exceeded the maximum contamination limit (MCLs) for the Comerio Water Treatment Plant (CWTP). USEPA classified the THMs as Group B2 carcinogens (shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals). This research evaluated the THMs concentrations in the following sampling sites: CWTP, Río Hondo and Pinas Abajo schools, Comerio Health Center (CDT), and the Vázquez Ortiz family, in the municipality of Comerio Puerto Rcio. The results show that the factors affecting the formation of THMs occur in different concentrations across the distribution line. There are not specific ranges to determine the formation of THMs in drinking water when the chemical and physical parameters were evaluated. Three different nanostructured materials (graphene, mordenite (MOR) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)) were used in this research, to reduce the THMs formation by adsorption in specific contact times. The results showed that graphene is the best nanomaterial to reduce THMs in drinking water. Graphene can reduce 80 parts per billion (ppb) of THMs in about 2 hours. In addition mordenite can reduce approximately 80 ppb of THMs and MWCNTs adsorbs 71 ppb of THMs in the same period of time respectively. In order to complement the adsorption results previously obtained, total organic carbon (TOC) analyses were measured, after different contact times with the nanomaterials. During the first 30 minutes, graphene C/Co was reduced to c.a. 0.9, in presence of each THMs solution. MWCNTs and MOR show similar adsorptions trends in comparison with graphene.


[1]  Nikolaou, A., Rizzo, L. and Selcuk, H. (2007) Control of Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water Systems. Nova Science Publisher, Inc., New York, 216.
[2]  Barrenetxea, C.O., Serrano, A.P., Delgado, M.G., Vidal, F.R. and Blanco, J.A. (2003) Contaminación ambiental. Una visión desde la química. [Environmental Contamination, a Chemistry Point of View]. Departamento de Química, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad de Burgos, Thomson Editores, Spain, 153.
[3]  Sun, Y.X., Wu, Y.Q., Hu, H.Y. and Tian, J. (2009) Effects of Operating Conditions on THMs and HAAs Formation during Wastewater Chlorination. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 168, 1290-1295.
[4]  Rodríguez, M.J., Serodes, J.B., Levallois, P. and Proulx, F. (2007) Chlorinated Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water According to Source, Treatment, Season, and Distribution Location. Journal Environmental Engineering Science, 6, 355-365.
[5]  Nikolaou, D.A., Golfinopoulos, K.S., Lekkas, T.D. and Arhonditsis, G.B. (2004) Factors Affecting the Formation of Organic By-Products during Water Chlorination: A Bench-Scale Study. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 159, 357-371.
[6]  Liu, S., Lim, M., Fabris, R., Chow, C., Drikas, M. and Amal, R. (2008) TiO2 Photocatalysis of Natural Organic Matter in Surface Water: Impact on Trihalomethanes and Haloacetic Acid Formation Potential. Environmental Science and Technology, 42, 6218-6223.
[7]  Chowdhury, F.L., Berube, P.R. and Mohseni, M. (2008) Characteristics of Natural Organic Matter and Formation of Chlorinated Disinfection By-Products from Two Source Waters That Respond Differently to Ozonation. Science and Engineering, 30, 321-331.
[8]  Slater, R.W. and Ho, J.S. (1989) Method 502.2 Volatile Organic Compounds in Water by Purge and Trap Capillary Column Gas Chromatographic with Photoionization and Electrolytic Conductivity Detectors in Series Revision 2. National Exposure Research Laboratory Office of Research and Development US Environmental Protection Agency Cincinnati, Ohio.
[9]  Qu, X., Brame, J., Li, Q. and álvarez, J.J.P. (2012) Nanotechnology for a Safe and Sustainable Water Supply: Enabling Integrated Water Treatment and Reuse. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston.
[10]  Tago, T., Aoki, D., Iwakai, K. and Masuda, T. (2009) Preparation for Size-Controlled MOR Zeolite Nanocrystal Using Water/Surfactant/Organic Solvent. Topics in Catalysis, 52, 865-871.
[11]  Sun, Z., Dustin, K.J. and Tour, J.M. (2011) Graphene Chemistry: Synthesis and Manipulation. The Journal Physical Chemistry Letters, 2, 2425-2432.
[12]  Feng, X., Maier, S. and Salmeron, M. (2012) Water Splits Epitaxial Graphene and Intercalates. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 134, 5662-5668.
[13]  Rao, C.N.R., Subrahmanyam, K.S., Ramakrishna, H.S.S. and Govindaraj, A. (2011) Graphene: Synthesis, Functionalization and Properties. Modern Physics Letters, 25, 427-451.
[14]  Ghosh, D., Giri, S., Kalra, S. and Das, C.K. (2012) Synthesis and Characterizations of TiO2 Coated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Graphene/Polyaniline Nanocomposite for Supercapacitor Applications. Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 2, 70-77.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal