全部 标题 作者
关键词 摘要

OALib Journal期刊
ISSN: 2333-9721
费用:99美元

查看量下载量

相关文章

Mariposas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) de dos colecciones de Santander, Colombia Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) of two collections from Santander, Colombia

Partial Altitudinal Migration of a Himalayan Forest Pheasant

Papilionidae and Pieridae Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea) of the state of Guanajuato, Mexico

Alfred Russel Wallace and the Darwinian Species Concept: His Paper on the Swallowtail Butterflies (Papilionidae) of 1865

Diversity and distribution patterns of Pronophilina butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) along an altitudinal transect in north-western Ecuador

Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae) support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia

Comunidad de mariposas diurnas (Lepidoptera:Rhopalocera) en un gradiente altitudinal del ca on del rio Combeima-Tolima, Colombia Butterflies Community (Lepidoptera:Rhopalocera) Along an Altitudinal Gradient in Combeima River Canyon Tolima, Colombia

Study of the Genetic Diversity of the Ornamental Fish Badis badis (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) in the Terai Region of Sub-Himalayan West Bengal, India

Eternal Bengal Eternal Bengal

Alfred Russel Wallace and the Darwinian Species Concept: His Paper on the Swallowtail Butterflies (Papilionidae) of 1865 Alfred Russel Wallace y el Concepto Darwiniano de Especie: Su Trabajo de 1865 sobre Mariposas Papilio (Papilionidae)

更多...

Altitudinal Distribution of Papilionidae Butterflies along with Their Larval Food Plants in the East Himalayan Landscape of West Bengal, India

DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2014.21001, PP. 1-8

Keywords: Altitudinal Distribution, Papilionidae, Himalayan Landscape, Species Richness, Species Diversity, Larval Food Plant

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

The altitudinal distribution of Papilionidae butterflies across the East Himalayan Landscape of West Bengal, India is presented here. 26 butterfly species are known to occur across 11 altitudinal belts. Species Richness (R) and Species Diversity (H′) are said to be highest between 1200 - 1400 masl (meters above sea level). In contrast, lowest values of Species Richness and Species Diversity occur at the highest altitude of 3000 masl and above. Maximum number of individuals occurs between 900 - 1100 masl while the minimum number of individuals was present at the highest altitude of 3000 masl or above. 35 species of plants belonging to 6 families served as the larval food plant of these butterflies. Thus the presence of suitable larval host plants probably governs the altitudinal distribution of these papilionid species of butterflies. 30.77% of butterfly species are strictly monophagous in nature.

References

[1]  Smetacek, P. (2011) On the Anomalous Altitudinal Distribution of West Himalayan Troidini and Papilionini (Papilio-nidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society, 65, 126-132.
[2]  Kehimkar, I. (2008) The Book of Indian Butterflies. Bombay Natural History Society, Oxford University Press.
[3]  Joshi, P.C. and Arya, M. (2007) Butterfly Communities along Altitudinal Gradients in a Protected Forest in the Western Himalayas, India. The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University, 7, 1-9.
[4]  Smith, C. (1994) Butterflies of Nepal. Craftsman Press, Bangkok.
[5]  Singh, A.P. (2012) Lowland Forest Butterflies of the Sankosh River Catchment, Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 4, 3085-3102. http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2625.3085-102
[6]  Maude, E.W. (1949) List of Butterflies Caught in Darjeeling District between 1700 and 4400 ft. Parts I, II, III, and IV. Journal of Bengal Natural History Society, 23, 86-92.
[7]  Das, R.P., Saha, G.K., De, J.K. and Sanyal, A.K. (2012) Diversity and Habitat Preferences of Butterflies in Gorumara National Park, West Bengal, India. Journal of research in Biology, 2, 303-314.
[8]  MOEF (Ministry of Environment and Forests) (1990) Joint Forest Management Resolution, of Environment, Forests and Wildlife. Government of India, New Delhi, India.
[9]  Kunte, K. (1997) Seasonal Patterns in Butterfly Abundance and Species Diversity in Four Tropical Habitats in Northern Western Ghats. Journal of Bioscience, 22, 593-603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02703397
[10]  Rodgers and Panwar (1988) Planning a Wildlife Protected Area Network in India. 2 vol. Project FO: IND/82/003, FAO, Dehradun, 339, 267.
[11]  Mandal, S. (2007) Wild fauna of Gorumara National Park, Jalpaiguri, West Bengal. Intas Polivet, 8, 257-261.
[12]  Mallick, J.K. (2010) Status of Red Panda Ailurus fulgens in Neora Valley National Park, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India. Small Carnivore Conservation, 43, 30-36.
[13]  Pollard, E. (1977) A Method for Assessing Changes in the Abundance of Butterflies. Biological Conservation, 12, 115-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(77)90065-9
[14]  Evans, J.H. (1932) Identification of Indian Butterflies. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai.
[15]  Wynter-Blyth, M.A. (1957) Butterflies of the Indian Region. Bombay Natural History Society.
[16]  Haribal, M. (1992) The Butterflies of Sikkim Himalaya and their natural history. Sikkim. Sikkim Natural Conservation Foundation.
[17]  Kunte, K. (2000) Butterflies of Peninsular India. Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore. University Press, Hyderabad.
[18]  Cowan, A. and Cowan, J.M. (1979) The Trees of Northern Bengal Including Shrubs, Woody Climber, Bamboos, Palms and Tree Ferns. Naaz Offset Press, Delhi.
[19]  Polunin, O. and Stainton, A. (2005) Flowers of the Himalaya. Seventh Impression. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
[20]  Maity, D. and Maiti, G.G. (2007) The Wild Flowers of Kanchenjunga Biosphere Reserve, Sikkim, Naya Udyog, Kolkata.
[21]  Das, A.P., Bhujel, R.B. and Lama, D. (2008) Plant Resources in the Protected Areas and Proposed Corridors of Darjeeling, India, In: Chettri, N., Shakya, B. and Sharma, E., Eds., Biodiversity Conservation in the Kangchenjunga Landscape, Hill Side Press (P.) Ltd., Kathmandu, 56-79.
[22]  Shannon, C.E. (1948) A mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 27, 379-423,623- 656.
[23]  Magurran, A.E. (1988) Ecological Diversity and Its Measurements. University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-7358-0
[24]  García-Barros, E. and Fartmann, T. (2009) Butterfly Oviposition: Sites, Behaviour and Modes. In: Settele, J., Shreeve, T., Konvi?ka, M. and Van Dyck, H., Eds., Ecology of Butterflies in Europe, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 29-42.
[25]  Kerr, J.T. (2001) Butterfly Species Richness Patterns in Canada: Energy, Heterogeneity, and Potential Consequences of Climate Change. Conservation Ecology, 5. http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss1/art10
[26]  Kerr, J.T, Southwood, T.R.E. and Cihlar, J. (2001) Remotely Sensed Habitat Diversity Predicts Butterfly Species Richness and Community Similarity in Canada. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 11365- 11370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.201398398
[27]  Choi, S.W. (2004) Trends in Butterfly Species Richness in Response to the Peninsular Effect in South Korea. Journal of Biogeography, 31, 587-592. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2003.01007.x
[28]  Bhusal D.R, and Khanal, B. (2008) Seasonal and Altitudinal Variation of Butterflies in Eastern Siwalik of Nepal. Journal of Natural History Museum, 23, 82-87.
[29]  Rakbek, C. (1995) The Elevational Gradient of Species Richness: A Uniform Pattern? Ecography, 18, 200-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.1995.tb00341.x
[30]  Quinn, R.M., Gaston K.J. and Roy D.B. (1998) Coincidence in the Distribution of Butterflies and Their Foodplants. Ecography, 21, 279-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.1998.tb00565.x
[31]  Gutierrez D, and Mendez, R. (1995) Phenology of Butterflies in a Mountain Area in Northern Iberian Peninsula. Ecography, 18, 209-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.1995.tb00123.x
[32]  Cowley, M.J.R., Thomas, C.D., Wilson, R.J., Leon-Córtes, J.L., Gutiérrez, D. and Bulman, C.R. (2001) The Density and Distribution of British Butterflies. II. An Assessment of Mechanisms. Journal of Animal Ecology, 70, 426-441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2001.00509.x
[33]  Uniyal, V.P. (2007) Butterflies in the Great Himalayan Conservation Landscape in Himachal Pradesh, Western Himalaya. Entomon, 32, 119-127.
[34]  Slansky, F. (1993) Nutritional Ecology: The Fundamental Quests for Nutrients. In: Stamp, N.E. and Casey, T.E., Eds., Caterpillars-Ecological and Evolutionary Constraints on Foraging, Champion and Hall, New York, 29-91.
[35]  Lawton, J.H. (1983) Plant Architecture and the Diversity of Phytophagous Insects. Annual Review of Entomology, 28, 23-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.28.010183.000323
[36]  Basset, Y. (1991) The Seasonality of Arboreal Arthropods Foraging within an Australian Rainforest Tree. Ecological Entomology, 16, 265-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1991.tb00217.x
[37]  Leather, S.R. (1990) The Analysis of Species-Area Relationships, with Particular Reference to Macrolepidoptera on Rosaceae: How Important Is Insect Data-Set Quality? Entomologist, 109, 8-16.
[38]  Williams, P.H., Humphrics, C.J. and Gaston, K.J. (1994) Centres of Seed-Plant Diversity: The Family Way. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 256, 67-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1994.0050
[39]  Scriber, J. M., Tsubaki, Y. and Lederhouse, R.C. (1995) Swallowtail Butterflies: Their Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, Florida.
[40]  Barua, K.K., Slowik, J., Bobo, K.S. and Muehlenberg, M. (2010) Correlations of Rainfall and Forest Type with Papilionid Assemblages in Assam in Northeast India. Psyche, 2010, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/560396
[41]  Robinson, G.S., Ackery, P.R., Kitching, I.J., Beccaloni, G.W and Hernández, L.M. (2001) Hostplants of the Moth and Butterfly Caterpillars of the Oriental Region. Southdene Sdn Bhd and Malaysian Nature Society, Malaysia.
[42]  Polunin, O. and Stainton, A. (1984) Flowers of the Himalaya. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
[43]  Barua, K.K., Kakati, D. and Kalita, J. (2004) Present Status of Swallowtail Butterflies in Garbhanga Reserve Forest, Assam, India. Zoos’Print Journal, 19, 1439-1441. http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.1000.1439-41

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus