All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Is there an optimal environment in which to learn clinical anatomy? One man’s view

DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2014.21004, PP. 11-16

Keywords: Learning, Clinical Anatomy, Optimal Environment, Theatruman Atomicum, Dissection, Surgery

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Learning anatomy is essential in medical schools, and even more so for budding surgeons. Much has been discussed regarding the updated curriculum, and whether the pedagogies should be based upon cadaveric, and/or multimedia, or hybrid approaches. Much debate has also been centered on who is best qualified to teach. While all these are important, the setting is also critically important for the medical students and surgical trainees. Therefore the overarching issue is whether all these activities should be held in the dissection room, the operating theatre or the classical “Theatrum Anatomicum” ? What are the key experiential learning differences in picking up anatomical knowledge in the various venues listed above? This paper will provide some insights for teachers and students of human anatomy, and some ideas for the future planners and developers of anatomy learning centers internationally.


[1]  Boeckers, A., Fassnacht, U. and Boeckers, T.M. (2008) “Theatrum anatomicum”—A revived teaching facility in gross anatomy. Annals of Anatomy (Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft), 190, 495-501.
[2]  Sugand, K., Abrahams, P.H. and Khurana, A. (2010) The anatomy of anatomy: A review for its modernization. Anatomical Sciences Education, 3, 83-93.
[3]  Ang, E.T., Sugand, K., Hartman, M., Seow, C.S., Bay, B.H. and Abrahams, P. (2012) Singapore’s anatomical future: Quo vadis? Anatomical Sciences Education, 5, 234-240.
[4]  Drake, R.L., McBride, J.M., Lachman, N. and Pawlina, W. (2009) Medical education in the anatomical sciences: The winds of change continue to blow. Anatomical Sciences Education, 2, 253-259.
[5]  Findlater, G.S., Kristmundsdottir, F., Parson, S.H. and Gillingwater, T.H. (2012) Development of a supported self-directed learning approach for anatomy education. Anatomical Sciences Education, 5, 114-121.
[6]  Weeks, S.E., Harris, E.E. and Kinzey, W.G. (1995) Human gross anatomy: A crucial time to encourage respect and compassion in students. Clinical Anatomy, 8, 69-79.
[7]  Nicholson, H.D., Samalia, L., Gould, M., Hurst, P.R. and Woodroffe, M. (2005) A comparison of different embalming fluids on the quality of histological preservation in human cadavers. European Journal of Morphology, 42, 178-184.
[8]  Verbov, J.L. (1983) Mummified skin—An exercise in preservation. International Journal of Dermatology, 22, 46-60.
[9]  Baca, V., Doubkova, A., Kachlik, D., Stingl, J. and Svatos, F. (2006) Teaching arthroscopy techniques at the Educational Center for Clinical Anatomy and Endoscopy (ECAE), Department of Anatomy, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cecho-slovaca, 73, 356-358.
[10]  East, J.M., Valentine, C.S., Kanchev, E. and Blake, G.O. (2009) Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer using methylene blue dye manifests a short learning curve among experienced surgeons: A prospective tabular cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis. BMC Surgery, 9, 2.
[11]  D’Angelo-Donovan, D.D., Dickson-Witmer, D. and Petrelli, N.J. (2012) Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: A history and current clinical recommendations. Surgical Oncology, 21, 196-200.
[12]  Lazzaro, M., et al. (2001) Sentinel node role in breast cancer surgery. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 5, 181-184.
[13]  Szuba, A. and Rockson, S.G. (1997) Lymphedema: Anatomy, physiology and pathogenesis. Vascular Medicine, 2, 321-236.
[14]  Dustmann, H.O. (1982) Diagnosis, differential diagnosis and therapy of lymphedema. Zeitschrift für Orthop?die und ihre Grenzgebiete, 120, 76-82.
[15]  Gregl, A. (1988) Secondary leg edema—Experimental study. Zeitschrift für Lymphologie, 12, 48-53.
[16]  Ramshaw, B.J., et al. (1996) A comparison of the approaches to laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. Surgical Endoscopy, 10, 29-32.
[17]  Lantis 2nd, J.C. and Schwaitzberg, S.D. (1999) Tack entrapment of the ilioinguinal nerve during laparoscopic hernia repair. Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques A, 9, 285-289.
[18]  Sarikcioglu, L., Sindel, M., Akyildiz, F. and Gur, S. (2003) Anastomotic vessels in the retropubic region: Corona mortis. Folia Morphologica (Warsz), 62, 179-82.
[19]  Lau, H. and Lee, F. (2003) A prospective endoscopic study of retropubic vascular anatomy in 121 patients undergoing endoscopic extraperitoneal inguinal hernioplasty. Surgical Endoscopy, 17, 1376-1379.
[20]  McClusky, D.A., et al. (2006) Groin hernia: Anatomical and surgical history. Archives of Surgery, 141, 1035-1042.
[21]  Shimizu, S., et al. (2007) Telesurgery system with original-quality moving images over high-speed Internet: Expansion within the Asia-Pacific region. Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques A, 17, 673-678.
[22]  Gandsas, A., et al. (2001) Laparoscopy and the internet. A surgeon survey. Surgical Endoscopy, 15, 1044-1048.
[23]  Gandsas, A., et al. (2000) In-flight continuous vital signs telemetry via the Internet. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 71, 68-71.
[24]  Gandsas, A., Altrudi, R., Pleatman, M. and Silva, Y. (1998) Live interactive broadcast of laparoscopic surgery via the Internet. Surgical Endoscopy, 12, 252-255.
[25]  Gandsas, A., et al. (1996) Live broadcast of surgery through the Internet. Lancet, 348, 1314.
[26]  Russomano, T., et al. (2009) Tele-surgery: A new virtual tool for medical education. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 150, 866-870.
[27]  Bockers, A., et al. (2011) Ready for the OR?—Clinical anatomy and basic surgical skills for students in their preclinical education. GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung, 28, Doc45.
[28]  Bockers, A., Mayer, C. and Bockers, T.M. (2013) Does learning in clinical context in anatomical sciences improve examination results, learning motivation, or learning orientation? Anatomical Sciences Education.
[29]  Chapman, S.J., et al. (2013) How can we enhance undergraduate medical training in the operating room? A survey of student attitudes and opinions. Journal of Surgical Education, 70, 326-333.
[30]  Mahmud, W., et al. (2011) Dissection videos do not improve anatomy examination scores. Anatomical Sciences Education, 4, 16-21.
[31]  Filler, T.J., Jerosch, J. and Peuker, E.T (2000) Live interdisciplinary teaching via the internet. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 61, 157-162.
[32]  Peuker, E.T., et al. (1998) Possibilities of multimedia online teaching in medical education. Zentralblatt fur Gynakologie, 120, 471-473.
[33]  Roser, F., et al. (2013) Live surgery in neurosurgical training courses: Essential infrastructure and technical set-up. Acta Neurochirurgica (Wien), 155, 541-545.


comments powered by Disqus