All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Cement Kiln Dust Chemical Stabilization of Expansive Soil Exposed at El-Kawther Quarter, Sohag Region, Egypt

DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.410139, PP. 1416-1424

Keywords: Ultrasonic Velocities, Free Swelling, Heave, Unconfined Compressive Strength and Microstructural Changes

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


This work dealt with a chemical stabilization of an expansive high plastic soil of Pliocene deposits exposed at El-Kawther quarter using cement kiln dust (CKD) and cement kiln dust with lime (L) to reduce their swelling and improve their geotechnical properties. Several specimens of the studied expansive soil were collected from El-Kawther quarter. Chemical analysis of the used cement kiln dust and the lime was conducted. Microstructural changes were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after chemical treatment of the studied soil. Geotechnical properties including plasticity, compaction parameters, unconfined compressive strength (qu), ultrasonic velocities and free swelling of the studied soil were measured before and after the treatment. An optimum content of the cement kiln dust was 16% (CKD). The optimum content of the cement kiln dust with the lime was 14% (CKD) with 3% (L) according to pH-test. The results showed that the addition of cement kiln dust and cement kiln dust with lime led to a decrease in maximum dry density and an increase in optimum water content. Unconfined compressive strength values were increased using cement kiln dust and cement kiln dust with lime at 7 days curing time. Ultrasonic longitudinal (Vp) and shear (Vs) velocities values were also increased by addition of the cement kiln dust and the cement kiln dust with lime at 7 days curing time. Increment of the curing time from 7 to 28 days led to an increase in both unconfined compressive strength and ultrasonic velocities values. Free swelling percent of the studied soil was reduced from 80.0% to 0.0% after the treatment.


[1]  H. A. H. Ismaiel and M. M. Badry, “Lime Chmical Stabilization of Expansive Deposits Exposed at El-Kawther Quarter, Sohag Region, Egypt,” Geosciences, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2013, pp. 89-98.
[2]  H. A. H. Ismaiel, “Treatment and Improvement of the Geotechnical Properties of Different Soft Fine-Grained Soils Using Chemical Stabilization,” Ph.D. Thesis, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlich-Technischen Fakultat der Martin-Luther-Universitat Halle-Wittenberg, 2006.
[3]  E. H. Ramadan, “In Situ Chemical Stabilization of Expansive Clay Soil by Lime Additive,” 7th International Colloquium on Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Ain Shams Uni., Cairo, 1996, pp. 403-419.
[4]  T. O. Al-Refeai, “Stabilization Characteristics of Cement Kiln Dust,” Geoengineering in Arid Lands, 2000, pp. 133-137.
[5]  M. Zaman, I. G. Lagurous and A. Sayah, “Soil Stabilization Using Cement Kiln Dust,” Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Expansive Soil, Dallas, 1992.
[6]  Tensar Technical Note, “Chemical and Mechanical Stabilization of Sub-Grades and Flexible Pavement Sections,” TTN, BR 10, 1998.
[7]  B. Das, “Principles of Geotechnical Engineering,” 3rd Edition, PWS-Kent Publishing Company, Boston, 1994.
[8]  J. Bowles, “Engineering Properties of Soil and Their Measurements,” 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, Boston, 1992.
[9]  M. E. Mustafa, “Computerized Analysis of Geologic Structures in Central Eastern Desert, Egypt and Their Role in Distribution of Radioactive Mineralization,” Ph.D. Thesis, Cairo Uni., Egypt, 1979.
[10]  A. A. Abdelmoneim, “Hydrogeology of the Nile Basin in Sohag Province,” Master Thesis, Faculty of Sci., Assiut Uni., Egypt, 1988.
[11]  A. M. Youssef, “Mapping the Pliocene Clay Deposits Using Remote Sensing and Its Impact on the Urbanization Developments in Egypt, Case Study, East Sohag Area,” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, No. 26, 2008, pp. 579-591.
[12]  F. E. Salwa, B. B. Abdel Aziz and A. Z. El-Sayed, “Hazards Mitigation and Natural Resources Evaluation around Sohag-Safaga Highway, Eastern Desert, Egypt,” Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2011, pp. 15-28.
[13]  H. A. H. Ismaiel, M. M. Askalany and M. M. Badry, “Geotechnical Propertied and Classification of Both Non-Expansive and Expansive Soils Exposed along the New Upper Egypt-Red Sea Road, Eastern Desert, Egypt,” Scientific Journal of Banha University, No. 6, 2011, pp. 1-18.
[14]  A. Aly, “Assessment of Drying-Wetting Cycles for Mitigation the Potential of Expansive Soil in Upper Egypt,” Journal of Applied Sciences Research, No. 12, 2009, pp. 2277-2284.
[15]  M. A. Sakr, M. A. Shahin and M. M. Yasser, “Utilization of Lime for Stabilizing Soft Clay Soil of High Organic Content,” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, No. 27, 2009, pp. 105-113.
[16]  Conoco Inc., “Stratigraphic Lexicon and Explanatory Notes to the Geological Map of Egypt 1: 500000,” Coy H. Squyres General Chairman Map Project, Cairo, 1986.
[17]  J. L. Eades and R. E. Grim, “A Quick Test to Determine Lime Requirements for Lime Stabilization,” Highway Research Board, National Research Council, Washington DC, No. 139, 1996, pp. 61-72.
[18]  AASHTO, T 90, “Standard Method of Test for Determining the Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils,” Single User Digital Publication, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington DC, 2010.
[19]  AASHTO, T 99, “Standard Method of Test for Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using a 2.5kg (5.5-lb) Rammer and a 305-mm (12-in.) Drop,” Single User Digital Publication, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington DC, 2010.
[20]  AASHTO, T 208, “Standard Method of Test for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil,” Single User Digital Publication, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington DC, 2010.
[21]  N. Yesiller, J. L. Hanson, A. T. Rener and M. A. Usmen, “Ultrasonic Testing for Evaluation of Stabilized Mixtures,” Geomaterials, Transportation Research Record, No. 1757, 2001, pp. 32-39.
[22]  Egyptian Code, “Egyptian Code of Soil Mechanics,” Foundations Carrying out and Designation, Part 2, Laboratory Tests, 6th Edition, 2001.
[23]  J. L. Eades and R. E. Grim, “Reaction of Hydrated Lime with Pure Clay Minerals in Soil Stabilization,” Highway Research Board, No. 262, 1960, pp. 51-63.
[24]  J. B. Croft, “The Processes Involved in the Lime Stabilization of Clay Soils,” Proceedings of Australian Road Research Board, Part 2, 1964, pp. 1169-1203.
[25]  R. S. Narasimha and G. Rajasekaran, “Strength and Deformation Behavior of Lime Treated Marine Clays,” Proceedings of 3rd International Offshore and Polar Engineering, Singapore, 1993, pp. 185-196.
[26]  G. Rajasekaran, K. Murali and R. Srinivasarghavan, “Fabric and Mineralogical Studies on Lime Treated Marine Clays,” Ocean Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1995, pp. 227-234.
[27]  G. Rajsekaran and R. S. Narasimha, “Particle Size Analysis of Lime-Treated Marine Clays,” Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1998, pp. 109-119.
[28]  Z. Nalbantoglu and E. Gucbilmez, “Utilization of an Industrial Waste in Calcareous Expansive Clay Stabilization,” Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2002, pp. 8-84.
[29]  P. Nicholson, V. Kashyap and C. Fuji, “Lime and Fly Ash Admixture Improvement of Tropical Hawaiian Soils,” Transportation Research Record, Washington DC, No. 1440, 1994, pp. 71-78.
[30]  Z. Nalbantoglu and E. Gucbilmez, “Improvements of Calcareous Expansive Soils,” Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 47, No. 4, 2001, pp. 453-463.


comments powered by Disqus