An enhanced energy efficiency scheme, “Perform, Achieve
and Trade” (PAT) is explored in relation to the existing carbon market in
India, particularly the Clean Development Mechanism, Renewable Energy
Certification and possible Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. The PAT
scheme incentivises energy-intensive large industries and facilities for Enhance Energy
Efficiency, through technology upgrade and improvement in process. The PAT
scheme currently identified 478 designated consumers from eight energy
intensive industrial sectors namely, thermal power plants, iron and steel,
cement, textiles, chlor-alkali, aluminum, fertilisers and pulp & paper. The
threshold limit in thermal power plant sector to become a PAT designated
consumer is 30,000 tonne of oil equivalent annual energy consumption. In the first
PAT cycle, run through 2012 to 2015, total 144 designated consumers from
various states have been identified with individual target. Thermal power plant
sector has been categorized on the basis of their fuel input into three
subsectorsi.e. gas, oil and coal
based plants. This paper reviews the state of the art in PAT mechanism design
and operational features for implementation on thermal power plant sector. The
possibility of implementing an Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in India is
explored from political and institutional perspectives.
Y. W. Wu, S. H. Lou and S. Y. Lu, “A Model for Power System Interconnection Planning under Low-Carbon Economy With CO2 Emission Constraints,” IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2011, pp. 205-214.
A. N. Menegaki, “Growth and Renewable Energy in Europe: A Random Effect Model with Evidence for Neutrality Hypothesis,” Energy Economics, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2011, pp. 257-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2010.10.004
H. L. Raadal, E. Dotzauer, O. J. Hanssen and H. P. Kildal, “The Interaction between Electricity Disclosure and Tradable Green Certificates,” Energy Policy, Vol. 42, 2012, pp. 419-428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.12.006
V. Dinica and M. J. Arentsen, “Green Certificate Trading in the Netherlands in the Prospect of the European Electricity Market,” Energy Policy, Vol. 31, No. 7, 2003, pp. 609-620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4215(02)00146-5
E. Vine and J. Hamrin, “Energy Savings Certificates: A Market-Based Tool for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” Energy Policy, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2008, pp. 467-476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2007.10.001
P. Effendi and J. Courvisanos, “Political Aspects of Innovation: Examining Renewable Energy in Australia,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2010, pp. 245-252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2011.07.039
G. Curran, “Contested Energy Futures: Shaping Renewable Energy Narratives in Australia,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2012, pp. 236-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.11.009
S. Long, C. Michael and Y. Lin, “A Review on Sustainable Design of Renewable Energy Systems,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2012, pp. 192-207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.147
S. S. Krishnan, N. Narang, S. K. Dolly, R. King and E. Subrahmanian, “Global Mechanisms to Create Energy Efficient and Low-Carbon Infrastructures: An Indian Perspective,” 2010 3rd International Conference on Infrastructure Systems and Services: Next Generation Infrastructure Systems for Eco-Cities (INFRA), Shenzhen, 11-13 November 2010, pp. 1-6.
R. Kumar and A. K. Agarwala, “Energy Certificates REC and PAT Sustenance to Energy Model for India,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 21, 2013, pp. 315-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.01.003
A. K. Asthana, “Can the Learning’s from International Examples Make the ‘Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) Scheme Perform Better for India—An Approach for Target Setting in Perform, Achieve & Trade (PAT) Mechanism,” 2011.
K. Regan and N. Mehta for Verco Global Report for British High Commission (BHC) on International Finance and the PAT Scheme. http://www.vercoglobal.com/images/uploads/insights-reports/International_finance_and_the_PAT_scheme.pdf
R. Kumar and A. K. Agarwala, “Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform, Achieve, Trade Mechanisms to Enhance the Energy Security for India,” Energy Policy, Vol. 55, 2013, pp. 669-676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.12.072
R. Kumar and A. K. Agarwala, “RET Diffusion Model for Techno-Economics feasibility,” International Conference on “SOLARIS-2012-Energy Security Global Warming and Sustainable Climate”, IIT Delhi and BERS, 7-9 February 2012, pp. 479-491.
A. Arabali, M. Ghofrani, M. Etezadi-Amoli, M. S. Fadali and Y. Baghzouz, “Genetic-Algorithm-Based Optimization Approach for Energy Management,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2013, pp. 162-170.