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Biologicals and Fetal Cell Therapy for Wound and Scar Management

DOI: 10.5402/2011/549870

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Abstract:

Few biopharmaceutical preparations developed from biologicals are available for tissue regeneration and scar management. When developing biological treatments with cellular therapy, selection of cell types and establishment of consistent cell banks are crucial steps in whole-cell bioprocessing. Various cell types have been used in treatment of wounds to reduce scar to date including autolog and allogenic skin cells, platelets, placenta, and amniotic extracts. Experience with fetal cells show that they may provide an interesting cell choice due to facility of outscaling and known properties for wound healing without scar. Differential gene profiling has helped to point to potential indicators of repair which include cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, cytokines, growth factors, and development. Safety has been evidenced in Phase I and II clinical fetal cell use for burn and wound treatments with different cell delivery systems. We present herein that fetal cells present technical and therapeutic advantages compared to other cell types for effective cell-based therapy for wound and scar management. 1. Introduction Cell-based therapies are penetrating gently into routine medical care and especially for wound management of skin. They offer the promise of repairing and/or replacing damaged tissue and restoring lost functionality, because ideally, they provide all of the factors necessary for wound healing. Several cell types and tissues have been proposed as starting material including autologous cells, adult stem cells including those derived from bone marrow, and adipose tissue, fetal cells, embryonic stem cells, platelets, and tissues from placental and amniotic fluid. These cell types are used for biological preparations in processing vaccines and medicinal, veterinary, and tissue engineering products [1–41]. As the literature and information is vast on cell-based therapies, this paper will concentrate on fetal cells as the choice in wound and scar management. Firstly, we will define differences between stem, and mesenchymal and fetal cells, as the literature is confusing with these terminologies, followed by a short review of fetal wound healing and associated processes. Importantly, cell choice and the technical specifications to outscale, stability, safety, and delivery are the major hurdles for development of biologicals for better wound treatments and scar management. Fetal skin cells present biological, technical, and therapeutic advantages lending towards possible routine cellular-based therapy for wound and scar management. All of these aspects

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