全部 标题 作者
关键词 摘要


Ecological Speciation and the Intertidal Snail Littorina saxatilis

DOI: 10.1155/2014/239251

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

In recent decades biologists studying speciation have come to consider that the process does not necessarily require the presence of a geographical barrier. Rather, it now seems to be possible for reproductive barriers to evolve within what was hitherto a single ‘‘species.’’ The intertidal snail Littorina saxatilis has been the focus of a considerable amount of work in this context, and it is now thought of as a good case study of ‘‘ecological speciation.’’ We review some of this work and briefly consider prospects for future developments. 1. Introduction In recent decades, there has been a considerable shift in our view of speciation—ecology has come in [1]. Or rather, it has come back in because the role of ecological processes in diversification dates back to Darwin, although some biologists of the 20th century gave a prominent role in speciation to geographical isolation (allopatry) [2, 3]. This shift of view has been reviewed by Mallet [4]. It is our intention here to give an account of work on Littorina saxatilis (Olivi) over the last three decades, highlighting its contribution and promise to the study of speciation. This marine snail is a species in a small and young genus and is probably the most derived member of the genus Littorina. It is thought to have originated in the eastern North Atlantic about 0.65?Ma?bp [5], rapidly colonizing both sides of the Atlantic. Phylogeographic patterns make it likely that more northern populations have undergone repeated subdivision and recontact as shorelines have been subject to glacial action and concomitant sea level changes. Populations on the northwestern coasts of the Iberian Peninsula appear to be genetically distinct from those elsewhere, suggestive of relatively long isolation [5–7]. L. saxatilis is strictly intertidal, though within the intertidal it has a fairly wide vertical distribution, and is found on rocky shores and in estuaries and salt marshes [8]. There are few published data on longevity. Hughes [9] gives a maximum of about four years. Littorina saxatilis is also highly polymorphic, and this has given rise to a great deal of taxonomic confusion and synonymy. It is part of a species complex, the group of rough periwinkles, with its sister species Littorina compressa (Jeffreys) and Littorina arcana Hannaford Ellis [8]. These latter produce egg masses which are deposited in sheltered crevices on the shore, while L. saxatilis females carry their embryos in a brood pouch in the dorsal mantle cavity until they are released as “crawl aways,” with similar morphology to the adult snails.

References

[1]  P. Nosil, Ecological Speciation, OUP Oxford, Oxford, UK, 2012.
[2]  E. Mayr, “Darwins principle of divergence,” Journal of the History of Biology, vol. 25, pp. 343–359, 1992.
[3]  D. Schluter and G. L. Conte, “Genetics and ecological speciation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, pp. 9955–9962, 2009.
[4]  J. Mallet, “Why was Darwin’s view of species rejected by twentieth century biologists?” Biology & Philosophy, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 497–527, 2010.
[5]  M. M. Doellman, G. C. Trussell, J. W. Grahame, and S. V. Vollmer, “Phylogeographic analysis reveals a deep lineage split within North Atlantic Littorina saxatilis,” Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, vol. 278, no. 1722, pp. 3175–3183, 2011.
[6]  M. Panova, A. M. Blakeslee, A. W. Miller, et al., “Glacial history of the North Atlantic marine snail, Littorina saxatilis, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 3, Article ID e17511, 2011.
[7]  R. K. Butlin, M. Saura, G. Charrier et al., “Parallel evolution of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the face of gene flow,” Evolution, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 935–949, 2014.
[8]  D. G. Reid, Systematics and Evolution of Littorina, The Ray Society, Dorchester, Mass, USA, 1996.
[9]  R. N. Hughes, “Resource allocation, demography and the radiation of life histories in rough periwinkles (Gastropoda),” Hydrobiologia, vol. 309, pp. 1–14, 1995.
[10]  N. A. Mikhailova, Y. A. Gracheva, T. Backeljau, and A. I. Granovitch, “A potential species-specific molecular marker suggests interspecific hybridization between sibling species Littorina arcana and L. saxatilis (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda) in natural populations,” Genetica, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 333–340, 2009.
[11]  K. Janson, “Allozyme and shell variation in two marine snails (Littorina, Prosobranchia) with different dispersal abilities,” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 245–256, 1987.
[12]  E. Rolán-Alvarez, “Sympatric speciation as a by-product of ecological adaptation in the Galician Littorina saxatilis hybrid zone,” Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2007.
[13]  E. Rolán-Alvarez, K. Johannesson, and J. Erlandsson, “The maintenance of a cline in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis: the role of home site advantage and hybrid fitness,” Evolution, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1836–1847, 1997.
[14]  K. Johannesson and B. Johannesson, “Dispersal and population expansion in a direct developing Marine Snail (Littorina saxatilis) following a severe population bottleneck,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 309, no. 1, pp. 173–180, 1995.
[15]  J. Erlandsson, E. Rolán-Alvarez, and K. Johannesson, “Migratory differences between ecotypes of the snail Littorina saxatilis on Galician Rocky shores,” Evolutionary Ecology, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 913–924, 1998.
[16]  E. Rolán-Alvarez, J. Erlandsson, K. Johannesson, and R. Cruz, “Mechanisms of incomplete prezygotic reproductive isolation in an intertidal snail: testing behavioural models in wild populations,” Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 879–890, 1999.
[17]  R. Cruz and C. García, “Disruptive selection on female reproductive characters in a hybrid zone of Littorina saxatilis,” Evolutionary Ecology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 167–182, 2001.
[18]  A. Sá-Pinto, M. Martínez-Fernández, C. López-Fernánde et al., “Incipient post-zygotic barrier in a model system of ecological speciation with gene flow,” Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 2750–2756, 2013.
[19]  M. Saura, M. Martínez-Fernández, M. A. Rivas, A. Caballero, and E. Rolán-Alvarez, “Lack of early laboratory postzygotic reproductive isolation between two ecotypes of Littorina saxatilis (Mollusca, Gastropoda) showing strong premating sexual isolation,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 675, no. 1, pp. 13–18, 2011.
[20]  J. Galindo, M. Martínez-Fernández, S. T. Rodríguez-Ramilo, and E. Rolán-Alvarez, “The role of local ecology during hybridization at the initial stages of ecological speciation in a marine snail,” Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1472–1487, 2013.
[21]  K. Johannesson, B. Johannesson, and E. Rolán-Alvarez, “Morphological differentiation and genetic cohesiveness over a microenvironmental gradient in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis,” Evolution, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1770–1787, 1993.
[22]  S. L. Hull, J. Grahame, and P. J. Mill, “Morphological divergence and evidence for reproductive isolation in Littorina saxatilis (Olivi) in northeast England,” Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol. 62, pp. 89–99, 1996.
[23]  S. L. Hull, “Assortative mating between two morphs of Littorina saxatilis on a shore in Yorkshire,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 378, pp. 79–88, 1998.
[24]  A. Pickles and J. Grahame, “Mate choice in divergent morphs of Littorina saxatilis (olivi): speciation in action?” Animal Behaviour, vol. 58, pp. 181–184, 1999.
[25]  C. S. Wilding, R. K. Butlin, and J. Grahame, “Differential gene exchange between parapatric morphs of Littorina saxatilis detected using AFLP markers,” Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 611–619, 2001.
[26]  K. Janson, “Selection and migration in two distinct phenotypes of Littorina saxatilis in Sweden,” Oecologia, vol. 59, pp. 58–61, 1983.
[27]  K. Janson, “Variation in the occurrence of abnormal embryos in females of the intertidal gastropod Littorina saxatilis Olivi,” Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol. 51, pp. 64–68, 1985.
[28]  J. Hollander, M. Lindegarth, and K. Johannesson, “Local adaptation but not geographical separation promotes assortative mating in a snail,” Animal Behaviour, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 1209–1219, 2005.
[29]  K. Johannesson, J. N. Havenhand, P. R. Jonsson, M. Lindegarth, A. Sundin, and J. Hollander, “Male discrimination of female mucous trails permits assortative mating,” Evolution, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 3178–3184, 2008.
[30]  M. Panova, J. Hollander, and K. Johannesson, “Site-specific genetic divergence in parallel hybrid zones suggests nonallopatric evolution of reproductive barriers,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 15, no. 13, pp. 4021–4031, 2006.
[31]  S. E. Webster, Selection for local adaptation in Littorina saxatilis, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, 2014.
[32]  W. D. Atkinson and S. F. Newbury, “The adaptations of the rough winkle, Littorina rudis, to desiccation and dislodgement by wind and waves,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 53, pp. 93–105, 1984.
[33]  K. Janson and P. Sundberg, “Multivariate morphometric analysis of two varieties of Littorina saxatilis from the Swedish West Coast,” Marine Biology, vol. 74, pp. 49–53, 1983.
[34]  K. Johannesson and P. Sundberg, “Speciation in Littorina saxatilis (Olivi)?— a one-dimensional selection-migration model,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Littorinid Biology, J. Grahame, P. J. Mill, and D. G. Reid, Eds., pp. 1–8, The Malacological Society, London, UK, 1992.
[35]  S. Sadedin, J. Hollander, M. Panova, K. Johannesson, and S. Gavrilets, “Case studies and mathematical models of ecological speciation. 3: ecotype formation in a swedish snail,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 18, no. 19, pp. 4006–4023, 2009.
[36]  K. Johannesson, E. Rolán-Alvarez, and A. Ekendahl, “Incipient reproductive isolation between two sympatric morphs of the intertidal snail Littorina saxatilis,” Evolution, vol. 49, pp. 1180–1190, 1995.
[37]  E. Rolán-Alvarez, M. Carballo, J. Galindo, et al., “Nonallopatric and parallel origin of local reproductive barriers between two snail ecotypes,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 3415–3424, 2004.
[38]  H. Quesada, D. Posada, A. Caballero, P. Morán, and E. Rolán-Alvarez, “Phylogenetic evidence formultiple sympatric ecological diversification in a marine snail,” Evolution, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 1600–1612, 2007.
[39]  J. Galindo, P. Morán, and E. Rolán-Alvarez, “Comparing geographical genetic differentiation between candidate and noncandidate loci for adaptation strengthens support for parallel ecological divergence in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 919–930, 2009.
[40]  J. W. Grahame, C. S. Wilding, and R. K. Butlin, “Adaptation to a steep environmental gradient and an associated barrier to gene exchange in Littorina saxatilis,” Evolution, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 268–278, 2006.
[41]  N. Bierne, J. Welch, E. Loire, F. Bonhomme, and P. David, “The coupling hypothesis: why genome scans may fail to map local adaptation genes,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 2044–2072, 2011.
[42]  N. Bierne, P. A. Gagnaire, and P. David, “The geography of introgression in a patchy environment and the thorn in the side of ecological speciation,” Current Zoology, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 72–86, 2013.
[43]  P. Conde-Padín, A. Caballero, and E. Rolán-Alvarez, “Relative role of genetic determination and plastic response during ontogeny for shell-shape traits subjected to diversifying selection,” Evolution, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 1356–1363, 2009.
[44]  H. M. Wood, J. W. Grahame, S. Humphray, J. Rogers, and R. K. Butlin, “Sequence differentiation in regions identified by a genome scan for local adaptation,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 17, no. 13, pp. 3123–3135, 2008.
[45]  J. Galindo, J. W. Grahame, and R. K. Butlin, “An EST-based genome scan using 454 sequencing in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis,” Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 2004–2016, 2010.
[46]  K. Janson, “Phenotypic differentiation in Littorina saxatilis Olivi (Mollusca, Prosobranchia) in a small area on the Swedish West Coast,” Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol. 48, pp. 167–173, 1982.
[47]  T. N. Walker and J. W. Grahame, “Shell shape variation and fitness variables in the gastropod Littorina saxatilis,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 430, pp. 103–111, 2011.
[48]  N. A. M. Chrismas, B. Torres-Fabila, C. S. Wilding, and J. W. Grahame, “An association of mitochondrial haplotype with shell shape in the intertidal gastropod Littorina saxatilis,” Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 184–189, 2014.
[49]  R. Faria, S. Renaut, J. Galindo, et al., “Advances in ecological speciation: an integrative approach,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 513–521, 2014.
[50]  V. Soria-Carrasco, Z. Gompert, A. A. Comeault, et al., “Stick insect genomes reveal natural selection’s role in parallel speciation,” Science, vol. 344, no. 6185, pp. 738–742, 2014.
[51]  L. J. Johnson, P. J. Mill, S. L. Hull, J.-P. Ducrotoy, and K. J. Caley, “Seasonal patterns in the reproductive activity of Barnacle-Dwelling littorinids,” Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 821–826, 2000.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus