All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

PLOS ONE  2014 

Internal Consistency of Event-Related Potentials Associated with Cognitive Control: N2/P3 and ERN/Pe

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102672

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Recent studies in psychophysiology show an increased attention for examining the reliability of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), which are measures of cognitive control (e.g., Go/No-Go tasks). An important index of reliability is the internal consistency (e.g., Cronbach's alpha) of a measure. In this study, we examine the internal consistency of the N2 and P3 in a Go/No-Go task. Furthermore, we attempt to replicate the previously found internal consistency of the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) and Positive-Error (Pe) in an Eriksen Flanker task. Healthy participants performed a Go/No-Go task and an Eriksen Flanker task, whereby the amplitudes of the correct No-Go N2/P3, and error trials for ERN/Pe were the variables of interest. This study provides evidence that the N2 and P3 in a Go/No-Go task are internally consistent after 20 and 14 trials are included in the average, respectively. Moreover, the ERN and Pe become internally consistent after approximately 8 trials are included in the average. In addition guidelines and suggestions for future research are discussed.


[1]  Olvet DM, Hajcak G (2009) The stability of error-related brain activity with increasing trials. Psychophysiology 46: 957–961. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00848.x
[2]  Luijten M, Machielsen MW, Veltman DJ, Hester R, de Haan L, et al. (2013) Systematic review of ERP and fMRI studies investigating inhibitory control and error processing in people with substance dependence and behavioural addictions. J psych neurosci 38(1): 130052–130052. doi: 10.1503/jpn.130052
[3]  Gehring WJ, Himle J, Nisenson LG (2000) Action-monitoring deficits in obsessive compulsive disorder. Psychol Sci 11: 1–6. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00206
[4]  Riesel A, Weinberg A, Endrass T, Meyer A, Hajcak G (2013) The ERN is the ERN is the ERN? Convergent validity of error-related brain activity across different tasks. Biol Psychol 93: 377–385. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.04.007
[5]  Anastasi A, Urbina S (1997) Psychological testing (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[6]  Cook DA, Beckman TJ (2006) Current concepts in validity and reliability for psychometric instruments: Theory and application. Am J Med 119(2)..
[7]  Cronbach LJ, Meehl PE (1955) Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychol Bull 52: 281–302. doi: 10.1037/h0040957
[8]  Wostmann NM, Aichert DS, Costa A, Rubia K, Moller HJ, et al. (2013) Reliability and plasticity of response inhibition and interference control. Brain and Cognition 81(1): 82–94. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2012.09.010
[9]  Cohen PH, Polich J (1997) On the number of trials needed for P300. Int J Psychophys 25: 249–255. doi: 10.1016/s0167-8760(96)00743-x
[10]  Kiang M, Patriciu I, Roy C, Christensen BK, Zipursky RB (2013) Test-re-test reliability and stability of N400 effects in a word-pair semantic priming paradigm. Clin Neurophysiol 4: 667–674. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2012.09.029
[11]  Pontifex MB, Scudder MR, Brown ML, O'Leary KC, Wu CT, et al. (2010) On the number of trials necessary for stabilization of error-related brain activity across the life span. Psychophysiology 47(4): 767–773. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2010.00974.x
[12]  Falkenstein M, Hoormann J, Hohnsbein J (1999) ERP components in Go/No-Go tasks and their relation to inhibition. Acta Psychol 101: 267–291. doi: 10.1016/s0001-6918(99)00008-6
[13]  Garavan H, Ross TJ, Stein EA (1999) Right hemispheric dominance of inhibitory control: an event-related functional MRI study. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 8301–8306. doi: 10.1073/pnas.96.14.8301
[14]  Clayson PE, Larson MJ (2013) Psychometric Properties of conflict monitoring and conflict adaption indices: Response time and Conflict N2 event-related potential. Psychophysiology 50: 1209–1219. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12138
[15]  Maguire MJ, White J, Brier MR (2011) How semantic categorization influences inhibitory processing in middle-childhood: An Event Related Potentials study. Brain and cognition 76(1): 77–86. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2011.02.015
[16]  Gehring WJ, Goss B, Coles MGH, Meyer DE, Donchin E (1993) A neural system for error detection and compensation. Psychol Sci 4: 385–390. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.1993.tb00586.x
[17]  Falkenstein M, Hohnsbein J, Hoormann J, Blanke L (1991) Effects of cross modal divided attention on late ERP components. II. Error processing in choice reaction tasks. Electroen Clin Neuro 78(6): 447–455. doi: 10.1016/0013-4694(91)90062-9
[18]  Hajcak G (2012) What we've learned from our mistakes: Insights from error-related brain activity. Current Directions in Psychol Sci 21: 101–106. doi: 10.1177/0963721412436809
[19]  Bernstein PS, Scheffers MK, Coles MG (1995) “Where did I go wrong?" A psychophysiological analysis of error detection. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 21: 1312–1322.55. doi: 10.1037//0096-1523.21.6.1312
[20]  Overbeek TJM, Nieuwenhuis S, Ridderinkhof KR (2005) Dissociable components of Error Processing. J Psychophysiol 19: 319–329. doi: 10.1027/0269-8803.19.4.319
[21]  Falkenstein M, Hoormann J, Christ S, Hohnsbein J (2000) ERP components on reaction errors and their functional significance: a tutorial. Biol Psychol 51: 87–107. doi: 10.1016/s0301-0511(99)00031-9
[22]  Meyer A, Riesel A, Proudfit GH (2013) Reliability of the ERN across multiple tasks as a function of increasing trials. Psychophysiology 50(12): 1220–1225. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12132
[23]  Meyer A, Bress JN, Proudfit GH (2014) Psychometric properties of the error-related negativity in children and adolescents. Psychophysiology in press.
[24]  Littel M, van den Berg I, Luijten M, Van Rooij AJ, Keemink LM, et al. (2012) Error-processing and response inhibition in excessive computer game players: an ERP study. Addict Biol 17: 934–947. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2012.00467.x
[25]  Luijten M, Littel M, Franken IHA (2011) Deficits in inhibitory control insmokers during a Go/No-Go task: an investigation using event-related brain potentials. PloS ONE 6(4): e18898. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018898
[26]  Franken IHA, Kroon LY, Hendriks VM (2000) Influence of individual differences in craving and obsessive cocaine thoughts on attentional processes in cocaine abuse patients. Addictive Behaviors 25(1): 99–102. doi: 10.1016/s0306-4603(98)00112-9
[27]  Marhe R, Van de Wetering BJM, Franken IHA (2013) Error-Related Brain Activity Predicts Cocaine Use after Treatment at 3-Month Follow-up. Biol Psychiat 73(8): 782–788. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.12.016
[28]  Gratton G, Coles MG, Donchin E (1983) A new method for off-line removal of ocular artifact. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 55: 468–484. doi: 10.1016/0013-4694(83)90135-9
[29]  Donkers FC, van Boxtel GJ (2004) The N2 in go/no-go tasks reflects conflict monitoring not response inhibition. Brain and cognition 56(2): 165–176. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2004.04.005
[30]  Bokura H, Yamaguchi S, Kobayashi S (2001) Electrophysiological correlates for response inhibition in a Go/NoGo task. Clinical Neurophysiology 112(12): 2224–2232. doi: 10.1016/s1388-2457(01)00691-5
[31]  Maguire MJ, Brier MR, Moore PS, Ferree TC, Ray D, et al. (2009) The influence of perceptual and semantic categorization on inhibitory processing as measured by the N2–P3 response. Brain and cognition 71(3): 196–203. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2009.08.018
[32]  Falkenstein M, Hoormann J, Hohnsbein J (1999) ERP components in Go/Nogo tasks and their relation to inhibition. Acta Psychologica 101: 267–291. doi: 10.1016/s0001-6918(99)00008-6


comments powered by Disqus