All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

PLOS ONE  2014 

Combining Aesthetic with Ecological Values for Landscape Sustainability

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102437

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Humans receive multiple benefits from various landscapes that foster ecological services and aesthetic attractiveness. In this study, a hybrid framework was proposed to evaluate ecological and aesthetic values of five landscape types in Houguanhu Region of central China. Data from the public aesthetic survey and professional ecological assessment were converted into a two-dimensional coordinate system and distribution maps of landscape values. Results showed that natural landscapes (i.e. water body and forest) contributed positively more to both aesthetic and ecological values than semi-natural and human-dominated landscapes (i.e. farmland and non-ecological land). The distribution maps of landscape values indicated that the aesthetic, ecological and integrated landscape values were significantly associated with landscape attributes and human activity intensity. To combine aesthetic preferences with ecological services, the methods (i.e. field survey, landscape value coefficients, normalized method, a two-dimensional coordinate system, and landscape value distribution maps) were employed in landscape assessment. Our results could facilitate to identify the underlying structure-function-value chain, and also improve the understanding of multiple functions in landscape planning. The situation context could also be emphasized to bring ecological and aesthetic goals into better alignment.


[1]  Daniel TC (2001) Whither scenic beauty? Visual landscape quality assessment in the 21st century. Landscape Urban Plan 54: 267–281. doi: 10.1016/s0169-2046(01)00141-4
[2]  Gobster PH, Nassauer JI, Daniel TC, Fry G (2007) The shared landscape: What does aesthetics have to do with ecology? Landscape Ecol 22: 959–972. doi: 10.1007/s10980-007-9110-x
[3]  Tyrv?inen L, Silvennoinen H, Kolehmainen O (2003) Ecological and aesthetic values in urban forest management. Urban Forestry Urban Green 1: 135–149. doi: 10.1078/1618-8667-00014
[4]  Klein LR (2013) Quantifying relationships between ecology and aesthetics in agricultural landscapes. Washington State University. 70–98.
[5]  Luo T, Wang H, Qiu QY, Liu J, Yang ZY (2010) Assessment of non-ecological landscape functions in environmental impact assessment for plan. Res Environ Sci 23(10): 1320–1327 (in Chinese)..
[6]  Wu J (2010) Landscape of culture and culture of landscape: does landscape ecology need culture? Landscape Ecol 25: 1147–1150. doi: 10.1007/s10980-010-9524-8
[7]  Musacchio LR (2009) The ecology and culture of landscape sustainability: emerging knowledge and innovation in landscape research and practice. Landscape Ecol 24: 989–992. doi: 10.1007/s10980-009-9393-1
[8]  Parsons R (1995) Conflict between ecological sustainability and environmental aesthetics: conundrum, can?rd or curiosity. Landscape Urban Plan 32: 227–244. doi: 10.1016/0169-2046(95)07004-e
[9]  Tress B, Tress G, Décamps H, D’Hauteserre AM (2001) Bridging human and natural sciences in landscape research. Landscape Urban Plan 57: 137–141. doi: 10.1016/s0169-2046(01)00199-2
[10]  Naveh Z (2007) Landscape ecology and sustainability. Landscape Ecol 22: 1437–1440. doi: 10.1007/s10980-007-9171-x
[11]  Wu J (2013) Landscape sustainability science: ecosystem services and human well-being in changing landscapes. Landscape Ecol 28: 999–1023. doi: 10.1007/s10980-013-9894-9
[12]  Porto M, Correia O, Beja P (2014) Optimization of landscape services under uncoordinated management by multiple landowners. PLoS ONE 9(1): 1–16. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086001
[13]  Frank S, Fürst C, Koschke L, Witt A, Makeschin F (2013) Assessment of landscape aesthetics–Validation of a landscape metrics-based assessment by visual estimation of the scenic beauty. Ecol Indic 32: 222–231. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.03.026
[14]  Lothian A (1999) Landscape and the philosophy of aesthetics: is landscape quality inherent in the landscape or in the eye of the beholder? Landsc Urban Plan 44: 177–198. doi: 10.1016/s0169-2046(99)00019-5
[15]  Roth M, Gruehn D (2012) Visual landscape assessment for large areas–using GIS, internet surveys and statistical methodologies in participatory landscape planning for the Federal State of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. Latvian Acad Sci A: Humanit Soc Sci 129–142.
[16]  Forman RTT (2008) The urban region: natural systems in our place, our nourishment, our home range, our future. Landscape Ecol 23: 251–253. doi: 10.1007/s10980-008-9209-8
[17]  Mozingo LA (1997) The aesthetics of ecological design: seeing science as culture. Landscape J 16: 46–59.
[18]  Nassauer JI (1997) Cultural sustainability: aligning aesthetics and ecology. In: Nassauer JI (Eds.) Placing Nature: Culture and Landscape Ecology. Washington, DC: Island Press.
[19]  Mikusiński G, Blicharska M, Antonson H, Henningsson M, G?ransson G, et al. (2013) Integrating ecological, social and cultural dimensions in the implementation of the landscape convention. Landscape Res 38(3): 384–393. doi: 10.1080/01426397.2011.650629
[20]  Junker B, Buchecker M (2008) Aesthetic preferences versus ecological objectives in river restorations. Landscape Urban Plan 85: 141–154. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.11.002
[21]  Norton LR, Inwood H, Crowe A, Baker A (2012) Trialing a method to quantify the ‘cultural services’ of the English landscape using Countryside Survey data. Land Use Policy 29: 449–455. doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2011.09.002
[22]  Hands DE, Brown RD (2002) Enhancing visual preference of ecological rehabilitation sites. Landscape Urban Plan 58: 57–70. doi: 10.1016/s0169-2046(01)00240-7
[23]  Williams KJH, Cary J (2002) Landscape preferences, ecological quality, and biodiversity protection. Environ Behav 34: 257–274. doi: 10.1177/0013916502034002006
[24]  Fry G, Tveit MS, Ode ?, Velarde MD (2009) The ecology of visual landscapes: Exploring the conceptual common ground of visual and ecological landscape indicators. Ecol Indic 9: 933–947. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2008.11.008
[25]  Hale BW, Steen-Adams MM, Predick K, Fisher N (2005) Ecological conservation through aesthetic landscape planning: A case study of the Lower Wisconsin State Riverway. Environ Manage 35: 381–395. doi: 10.1007/s00267-003-3061-z
[26]  Bastian O, Lütz M (2006) Landscape functions as indicators for the development of local agri-environmental measures. Ecol Indic 6: 215–227. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2005.08.011
[27]  Zhao JW, Luo PJ, Wang RH, Cai YL (2013) Correlations between aesthetic preferences of river and landscape characters. J Environ Eng Landscape Manag 21(2): 123–132. doi: 10.3846/16486897.2012.695738
[28]  Costanza R, d’Arge R, Groot DR, Farber S, Monica G, et al. (1997) The values of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387: 253–260. doi: 10.1038/387253a0
[29]  Xie GD, Lu CX, Leng YF, Zheng DU, Li SC (2003) Ecological assets valuation of the Tibetan Plateau. J Nat Resour 18: 189–196 (in Chinese)..
[30]  Nassauer JI (2004) Monitoring the success of metropolitan wetland restorations: cultural sustainability and ecological function. Wetlands 24: 756–765. doi: 10.1672/0277-5212(2004)024[0756:mtsomw];2
[31]  Purcell AT, Lamb RJ (1998) Preference and naturalness: an ecological approach. Landscape Urban Plan 42: 57–66. doi: 10.1016/s0169-2046(98)00073-5
[32]  Yang ZY, Luo T, Zhu ZC, Wang H, Song Y, et al. (2012) Landscape aesthetic assessment based on experiential paradigm assessment technology. Environ Sci Technol 35(3): 187–205 (in Chinese)..
[33]  Von Haaren C (2004) Landschaftsplanung. Stattgart: Eugen GmbH & Co. 245–272. (in German).
[34]  Dandy N, Van Der Wal R (2011) Shared appreciation of woodland landscapes by land management professionals and lay people: An exploration through field-based interactive photo-elicitation. Landscape Urban Plan 102: 43–53. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.03.008
[35]  Gómez-Sal A, Belmontes JA, Nicolau JM (2003) Assessing landscape values: a proposal for a multidimensional conceptual model. Ecol Model 168: 319–341. doi: 10.1016/s0304-3800(03)00144-3
[36]  Termorshuizen JW, Opdam P (2009) Landscape services as a bridge between landscape ecology and sustainable development. Landscape Ecol 24: 1037–1052. doi: 10.1007/s10980-008-9314-8
[37]  Yang B, Brown TC (1992) A cross-cultural comparison of preferences for landscape styles and landscape elements. Environ Behav 24: 471–507. doi: 10.1177/0013916592244003
[38]  Yang DW, Kao WTM, Zhang GQ, Zhang NY (2014) Evaluating spatiotemporal differences and sustainability of Xiamen urban metabolism using emergy synthesis. Ecol Model 272: 40–48. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2013.09.014
[39]  Yang DW, Qiu QY, Liu WJ (2012) Complementary zoning frameworks for sustainable management of eco-economic capital: a case study of Lijiang, China. J MT Sci 9: 760–769. doi: 10.1007/s11629-012-2163-6
[40]  Aretano R, Petrosillo I, Zaccarelli N, Semeraro T, Zurlini G (2013) People perception of landscape change effects on ecosystem services in small Mediterranean islands: A combination of subjective and objective assessments. Landscape Urban Plan 112: 63–73. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.12.010


comments powered by Disqus