All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Tribological Studies on AISI 1040 with Raw and Modified Versions of Pongam and Jatropha Vegetable Oils as Lubricants

DOI: 10.1155/2012/560175

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

The friction and wear tests on AISI 1040 are carried out under raw, modified versions of two nonedible vegetable oils Pongam (Pongamia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and also commercially available mineral oil using a pin-on-disc tribometer for various sliding distances and loads. A significant drop in friction and wear for AISI 1040 is observed under Pongam and Jatropha raw oil compared to mineral oil, for the complete tested sliding distance and load, increasing the potential of vegetable oil for tribological applications. Stribeck curves are also drawn to understand the regimes of lubrication. Both the vegetable oils showed a clear reduction in the boundary lubrication regimes, leading to an early start of full film lubrication. 1. Introduction Escalating prices, rapid depletion of fossil reserves as well as the stringent legislations enforced by the International authorities have enlarged the scope around the globe to explore alternative ecofriendly lubricants [1, 2]. Oils of plant origin are promising, renewable, environmental the friendly, and nontoxic fluids, pose no work place health hazards and are readily biodegradable. Vegetable oils exhibit, number of performance blessings such as natural high viscosity (30 to 80% higher than mineral oil) and excellent lubricity due to their ester functionality. These are over 95% bio degradable and thus degrade much faster than mineral oils (20 to 30%), thereby offering greater potential when it comes to reducing the cost of disposal [3]. Another important property of vegetable oils is their highflash points; for instance the flash point of Soybean oil is 326°C while mineral oils have approximately 200°C, thus reducing emissions and work place pollution. Further, biobased lubricants help to provide energy security for countries who use them and create local and regional economic development opportunities. Vegetable-based oils are finding their applications in various sectors of industry. For instance, the automotive lubricants derived from rapeseed, soy, and sunflower oils are finding good markets in European countries [4]. Also, some of the vegetable oilbased lubricants and greases are finding their opportunities in specific applications like metal forming and working, food processing industry, machine elements, marine, locomotives, and so forth [5, 6]. Even though, the vegetablebased oils are finding their scope in various types of applications, it is meaningful to select oil for a particular application only after ascertaining the properties and behaviour. Otherwise, oil can also be selected

References

[1]  S. Z. Erhan, B. K. Sharma, and J. M. Perez, “Oxidation and low temperature stability of vegetable oil-based lubricants,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 292–299, 2006.
[2]  N. J. Fox and G. W. Stachowiak, “Vegetable oil-based lubricants—a review of oxidation,” Tribology International, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1035–1046, 2007.
[3]  L. Pop, C. Pu?ca?, G. Bandur, G. Vlase, and R. Nu?iu, “Basestock oils for lubricants from mixtures of corn oil and synthetic diesters,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 71–76, 2008.
[4]  Y. M. Shashidhara and S. R. Jayaram, “Vegetable oils as a potential cutting fluid—an evolution,” Tribology International, vol. 43, no. 5-6, pp. 1073–1081, 2010.
[5]  S. Z. Erhan and S. Asadauskas, “Lubricant basestocks from vegetable oils,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 11, no. 2-3, pp. 277–282, 2000.
[6]  D. H?rner, “Recent trends in environmentally frinedly lubricants,” Journal of Synthetic Lubrication, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 327–347, 2002.
[7]  H. Wagner, R. Luther, and T. Mang, “Lubricant base fluids based on renewable raw materials: their catalytic manufacture and modification,” Applied Catalysis A, vol. 221, no. 1-2, pp. 429–442, 2001.
[8]  M. A. Maleque, H. H. Masjuki, and S. M. Sapuan, “Vegetable-based biodegradable lubricating oil additives,” Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 55, no. 2-3, pp. 137–143, 2003.
[9]  M. T. Siniawski, N. Saniei, B. Adhikari, and L. A. Doezema, “Influence of fatty acid composition on the tribological performance of two vegetable-based lubricants,” Journal of Synthetic Lubrication, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 101–110, 2007.
[10]  M. A. Kabir, “A pin-on-disc experimetal study on a green particulare-fluid lubricant,” J. Tribology, vol. 130, pp. 01–06, 2008.
[11]  R. Michel and T. M. Elektrionized, “Vegetable oils as lubricity componets in metal working lubricants,” FME Transactions, vol. 36, pp. 133–138, 2008.
[12]  M. Kalin and J. Vi?intin, “A comparison of the tribological behaviour of steel/steel, steel/DLC and DLC/DLC contacts when lubricated with mineral and biodegradable oils,” Wear, vol. 261, no. 1, pp. 22–31, 2006.
[13]  L. Jiusheng, R. Wenqi, R. Tianhui, F. Xingguo, and L. Weimin, “Tribological properties of phosphate esters as additives in rape seed oil,” Journal of Synthetic Lubrication, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 151–158, 2003.
[14]  W. Huang, B. Hou, P. Zhang, and J. Dong, “Tribological performance and action mechanism of S-[2-(acetamido)thiazol-1-yl] dialkyl dithiocarbamate as additive in rapeseed oil,” Wear, vol. 256, no. 11-12, pp. 1106–1113, 2004.
[15]  W. Castro, D. E. Weller, K. Cheenkachorn, and J. M. Perez, “The effect of chemical structure of basefluids on antiwear effectiveness of additives,” Tribology International, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 321–326, 2005.
[16]  A. M. Petlyuk and R. J. Adams, “Oxidation stability and tribological behavior of vegetable oil hydraulic fluids,” Tribology Transactions, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 182–187, 2004.
[17]  N. H. Jayadas, K. Prabhakaran Nair, and A. G, “Tribological evaluation of coconut oil as an environment-friendly lubricant,” Tribology International, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 350–354, 2007.
[18]  B. K. Sharma, A. Adhvaryu, and S. Z. Erhan, “Friction and wear behavior of thioether hydroxy vegetable oil,” Tribology International, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 353–358, 2009.
[19]  X. Wu, X. Zhang, S. Yang, H. Chen, and D. Wang, “Study of epoxidized rapeseed oil used as a potential biodegradable lubricant,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 561–563, 2000.
[20]  R. A. Holser, “Transesterification of epoxidized soybean oil to prepare epoxy methyl esters,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 130–132, 2008.
[21]  S. Bhuyan, S. Sundararajan, L. Yao, E. G. Hammond, and T. Wang, “Boundary lubrication properties of lipid-based compounds evaluated using microtribological methods,” Tribology Letters, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 167–172, 2006.
[22]  B. K. Sharma, K. M. Doll, and S. Z. Erhan, “Oxidation, friction reducing, and low temperature properties of epoxy fatty acid methyl esters,” Green Chemistry, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 469–474, 2007.
[23]  A. Adhvaryu, S. Z. Erhan, and J. M. Perez, “Tribological studies of thermally and chemically modified vegetable oils for use as environmentally friendly lubricants,” Wear, vol. 257, no. 3-4, pp. 359–367, 2004.
[24]  A. Adhvaryu, S. Z. Erhan, Z. S. Liu, and J. M. Perez, “Oxidation kinetic studies of oils derived from unmodified and genetically modified vegetables using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy,” Thermochimica Acta, vol. 364, no. 1-2, pp. 87–97, 2000.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus