All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Foods  2013 

Comparison of Cocoa Beans from China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

DOI: 10.3390/foods2020183

Keywords: cocoa beans, average bean weight, cocoa butter content, total polyphenolic content, amino acids, e-nose

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind’s basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% to 43.44%, respectively. Cocoa beans from Indonesia where shown to be about 8.0% and 9.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content, respectively, than that of Papua New Guinea and about 20.0% and 25.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content than Chinese dried beans, respectively. The average total polyphenolic content ranged from 81.22 mg/10 g to 301.01 mg/10 g. The Hainan 2011 sample had the highest total polyphenolic content, followed by the unfermented sample from Indonesia and the Papua New Guinea sample. The polyphenolic levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were 123.61 mg/10 g and lower than the other three samples, but the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total polyphenolic content of 81.22 mg/10 g. The average total amino acid content ranged from 11.58 g/100 g to 18.17 g/100 g. The total amino acid content was the highest in the Indonesian unfermented sample, followed by the Hainan 2011 sample and the Papua New Guinea sample. The levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were lower; the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total amino acid content.

References

[1]  Tafuri, A.; Ferracane, R.; Ritieni, A. Ochratoxin A in Italian marketed cocoa products. Food Chem. 2004, 88, 487–494, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.01.061.
[2]  Thompson, S.S.; Miller, K.B.; Lopez, A.S. Cocoa and Coffee. In Food Microbiology—Fundamentals and Frontiers; Doyle, M.J., Beuchat, L.R., Montville, T.J., Eds.; ASM Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2001; pp. 721–733.
[3]  Lopez, A.S.; Dimick, P.S. Cocoa Fermentation. In Enzymes, Biomass, Food and Feed; Reed, G., Nagodawithana, T.W., Eds.; VCH: Weinheim, Germany, 1995; pp. 561–577.
[4]  Ardhana, M.M.; Fleet, H.G. The microbial ecology of cocoa bean fermentations in Indonesia. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2003, 86, 87–99, doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00081-3.
[5]  LMC International. Anonymous. In The World Cocoa Market Outlook; LMC International Ltd.: New York, NY, USA, 2001; pp. 1–29.
[6]  Hii, C.L.; Law, C.L.; Cloke, M.; Suzannah, S. Thin layer drying kinetics of cocoa and dried product quality. Biosyst. Eng. 2009, 102, 153–161, doi:10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2008.10.007.
[7]  Biehl, B.; Voigt, J. Biochemistry of Chocolate Flavour Precursors. In Proceedings of the 12th International Cocoa Conference, Salvador, Brazil, 17–23 November 1996.
[8]  Puziah, H.; Jinap, S.; Sharifah, K.S.M.; Asbi, A. Changes in free amino acids, peptide-N, sugar and pyrazine concentration during cocoa fermentation. J. Sci. Food Agric. 1998, 78, 535–542, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199812)78:4<535::AID-JSFA151>3.0.CO;2-6.
[9]  Kratzer, U.; Frank, R.; Kalbacher, H.; Biehl, B.; W?stemeyer, J.; Voigt, J. Subunit structure of the vicilin-like globular storage protein of cocoa seeds and the origin of cocoa- and chocolate-specific aroma precursors. Food Chem. 2009, 113, 903–913, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.08.017.
[10]  Jinap, M.; Nazamid, S.; Jamilah, B. Activation of remaining key enzymes in dried under-fermented cocoa beans and its effect on aroma precursor formation. Food Chem. 2002, 78, 407–417, doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00120-6.
[11]  Hammami, C.; Rene, F.; Marin, M. Processquality optimization of the vacuum freeze-drying of apple slice by the response surface method. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 1999, 34, 145–160, doi:10.1046/j.1365-2621.1999.00247.x.
[12]  Lee, W.K.; Kim, J.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Lee, Y.C. Cocoa has more phenolic phytochemicals and a higher antioxidant capacity than teas and red wine. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003, 51, 7292–7295, doi:10.1021/jf0344385.
[13]  Jia, Z.S.; Tang, M.C.; Wu, J.M. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem. 1999, 64, 555–559, doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00102-2.
[14]  Kyi, M.T.; Daud, W.W.R.; Mohammad, B.M.A.; Samsudin, W.; Kadhum, A.A.H.; Talib, M.Z.M. The kinetics of polyphenol degradation during the drying of Malaysian cocoa beans. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2005, 40, 323–331, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.00959.x.
[15]  Noor-Soffalina, S.S.; Jinap, S.; Nazamid, S.; Nazimah, S.A.H. Effect of polyphenol and pH on cocoa Maillard-related flavour precursors in a lipidic model system. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2009, 44, 168–180, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2008.01711.x.
[16]  Zak, D.L.; Keeney, P.G. Changes in cocoa proteins during ripening of fruit, fermentation, and further processing of cocoa beans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1976, 24, 483–486, doi:10.1021/jf60205a056.
[17]  Afoakwa, O.E. Chocolate Science and Technology; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2010; pp. 110–156.
[18]  Beckett, T.S. Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use, 4th ed.; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2009; pp. 1–10.
[19]  Nazaruddin, R.; Seng, L.K.; Hassan, O.; Said, M. Effect of pulp preconditioning on the content of polyphenols in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) during fermentation. Ind. Crops Prod. 2006, 24, 87–94, doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2006.03.013.
[20]  Niemenak, N.; Rohsius, C.; Elwers, S.; Ndoumoua, D.O.; Lieberei, R. Comparative study of different cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) clones in terms of their phenolics and anthocyanins contents. J. Food Compos. Anal. 2006, 19, 612–619.
[21]  Camu, N.; Winter, D.T.; Addo, K.S.; Takrama, S.J.; Bernaert, H.; Vuyst, D.L. Fermentation of cocoa beans: Influence of microbial activities and polyphenol concentrations on the flavour of chocolate. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2008, 88, 2288–2297, doi:10.1002/jsfa.3349.
[22]  Redovnikovi?, I.R.; Delonga, K.; Mazor, S.; Dragovi?-Uzelac, V.; Cari?, M.; Vorkapi?-Fura?, J. Polyphenolic content and composition and antioxidative activity of different cocoa liquors. Czech J. Food Sci. 2009, 27, 330–337.
[23]  Ramli, N.; Hassan, O.; Said, M.; Samsudin, W.; Idris, A.N. Influence of roasting conditions on volatile flavor of roasted Malaysian cocoa beans. J. Food Proc. Preserv. 2006, 30, 280–298, doi:10.1111/j.1745-4549.2006.00065.x.
[24]  Tomas-Barberán, F.A.; Cienfuegos-Jovellanos, E.; Marín, A.; Muguerza, B.; Gil-Izquierdo, A.; Cerdá, B.; Zafrilla, P.; Morillas, J.; Mulero, J.; Ibarra, A.; et al. A new process to develop a cocoa powder with higher flavonoid monomer content and enhanced bioavailability in healthy humans. J. Agr. Food Chem. 2007, 55, 3926–3935, doi:10.1021/jf070121j.
[25]  Miller, B.K.; Hurst, W.J.; Flannigan, N.; Gan, L.N.; Ou, B.X.; Lee, C.Y.; Smith, N.; Stuart, A.D. Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009, 57, 9169–9180.
[26]  Hans-Dieter, W. Discrimination of chocolates and packaging materials by an electronic nose. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2001, 212, 529–533, doi:10.1007/s002170000271.
[27]  Schwan, R.F.; Wheals, A.E. The microbiology of cocoa fermentation and its role in chocolate quality. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2004, 44, 205–221, doi:10.1080/10408690490464104.
[28]  De Brito, E.S.; Pezoa García, N.H.; Gallao, M.I.; Cortelazzo, A.L.; Fevereiro, P.S.; Braga, M.R. Structural and chemical changes in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) during fermentation, drying and roasting. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2000, 81, 281–288.
[29]  Hansen, C.E.; del Olmo, M.; Burri, C. Enzyme activities in cocoa beans during fermentation. J. Sci. Food Agric. 1998, 77, 273–281, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199806)77:2<273::AID-JSFA40>3.0.CO;2-M.
[30]  Jinap, M.; Jamilah, B.; Nazamid, S. Effects of incubation and polyphenol oxidase enrichment on colour, fermentation index, procyanidins and astringency of unfermented and partly fermented cocoa beans. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2003, 38, 285–295, doi:10.1046/j.1365-2621.2003.00674.x.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus