Extracting energy from ambient vibration to power wireless sensor nodes has been an attractive area of research, particularly in the automotive monitoring field. This article reports the design, analysis and testing of a vibration energy harvesting device based on a miniature asymmetric air-spaced cantilever. The developed design offers high power density, and delivers electric power that is sufficient to support most wireless sensor nodes for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The optimized design underwent three evolutionary steps, starting from a simple cantilever design, going through an air-spaced cantilever, and ending up with an optimized air-spaced geometry with boosted power density level. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used as an initial tool to compare the three geometries’ stiffness (K), output open-circuit voltage (V ave), and average normal strain in the piezoelectric transducer (ε ave) that directly affect its output voltage. Experimental tests were also carried out in order to examine the energy harvesting level in each of the three designs. The experimental results show how to boost the power output level in a thin air-spaced cantilever beam for energy within the same space envelope. The developed thin air-spaced cantilever (8.37 cm 3), has a maximum power output of 2.05 mW (H = 29.29 μJ/cycle).
Cook-Chennault, K.A.; Sastry, A.M.; Thambi, N. Topical review: Powering MEMS portable devices—A review of non-regenerative and regenerative power supply systems with special emphasis on piezoelectric energy harvesting systems. Smart Mater. Struct. 2008, 17, 043001.
L？hndorf, M.; Kvister？y, T.; Westby, E.; Halvorsen, E. Evaluation of Energy Harvesting Concepts for Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems. Proceedings of Power MEMS 2007, Freiburg, Germany, 28–29 November 2007; pp. 331–334.
Frey, A.; Seidel, J.; Schreiter, M.; Kuehne, I. System Modeling of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Module for Environments with High Dynamic Forces. Presented at Smart Sensors, Actuators, and MEMS V, Prague, Czech Republic, 18–April 2011.
Keck, M. A. New Approach of a Piezoelectric Vibration-Based Power Generator to Supply Next Generation Tire Sensor Systems. Proceedings of 2007 IEEE Sensors, Atlanta, GA, USA, 28–31 October 2007; pp. 1299–1302.
Wu, L.; Wang, Y.; Jia, C.; Zhang, C. Battery-Less Piezoceramics Mode Energy Harvesting for Automobile TPMS. Proceedings of IEEE 8th International Conference on ASIC (ASICON'09), Changsha, China, 20–23 October 2009; pp. 1205–1208.
Zheng, Q.; Tu, H.; Agee, A.; Xu, Y. Vibration Energy Harvesting Device Based on Asymmetric Air-Spaced Cantilevers for Tire Pressure Monitoring System. Proceedings of Power MEMS 2009, Washington, DC, USA, 14 December 2009; pp. 403–406.
Braghin, F.; Brusarosco, M.; Cheli, F.; Cigada, A.; Manzoni, S.; Mancosu, F. Measurement of contact forces and patch features by means of accelerometers fixed inside the tire to improve future car active control. Veh. Syst. Dyn. 2006, 44, 3–13.
Tang, Q.C.; Xia, X.Y.; Li, X.X. Non-Contact Frequency-up-Conversion Energy Harvester for Durable & Broad-Band Automotive TPMS Application. Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 25th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), Paris, France, 29 January–2 February 2012; pp. 1273–1276.
Chen, Y.Y.; Pan, H.W. A Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester for Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems. Proceedings of Symposium on Ultrasonic Electronics, Kyoto, Japan, 8–10 November 2011; pp. 321–322.
Pinna, L.; Valle, M.; Bo, G.M. Experimental Results of Piezoelectric Bender Generators for the Energy Supply of Smart Wireless Sensors. Proceedings of the 13th Italian Conference Sensors and Microsystems, Roma, Italy, 19–21 February 2008; pp. 450–458.
Tsujiuchi, N.; Koizumi, T.; Oshibuchi, A.; Shima, I. Rolling Tire Vibration Caused by Road Roughness. Proceedings of SAE 2005 Noise and Vibration Cnference and Exhibition, Traverse City, MI, USA, 16 May 2005. paper 2005–01–2524.
Lange, T.; L？hndorf, M.; Kvister？y, T. Intelligent Low-Power Management and Concepts for Battery-Less Direct Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS). In Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2007, VDI-Buch; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 2007; pp. 237–249.
Frey, A.; Seidel, J.; Schreiter, M.; Kuehne, I. Piezoelectric MEMS Energy Harvesting Module Based on Non-Resonant Excitation. Proceedings of 2011 16th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS), Beijing, China, 5–9 June 2011; pp. 683–686.
Chen, Z.S.; Yang, Y.M.; Deng, G.Q. Analytical and Experimental Study on Vibration Energy Harvesting Behaviors of Piezoelectric Cantilevers with Different Geometries. Proceedings of International Conference on Sustainable Power Generation and Supply (SUPERGEN'09), Nanjing, China, 6–7 April 2009; pp. 1–7.