The results of investigations of flux decline during nanofiltration (NF) of lactic acid solutions using dynamically formed zirconium(IV) hydrous oxide/polyacrylate membranes (Zr(IV)/PAA) under conditions resulting in low and high lactic acid rejection are reported. The experimental permeate flux versus time curves were analyzed in the frame of resistance in a series model with the aim of developing the characteristic of resistances. Analysis of experimental data and results of calculations showed that the reduction of fouling effects in the investigated system could be achieved due to appropriate hydrodynamic process conditions and regular rinsing with deionized water.
Polom, E.; Szaniawska, D. Rejection of lactic acid solutions by dynamically formed nanofiltration membranes using a statistical design method. Desalination 2006, 198, 208–214, doi:10.1016/j.desal.2006.04.002.
Szaniawska, D.; Spencer, H.G. Non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of the transport properties of formed-in-place Zr(IV) hydrous oxide-PAA membranes: II NaCl-water solutions. Desalination 1995, 101, 31–38, doi:10.1016/0011-9164(95)00005-M.