The present study investigates cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes, derived from three victims who were unfortunately exposed to cobalt-60 ( 60Co) radiation (the 1999 accident occurred in a village in China’s Henan province). Case A of the three victims was exposed to a higher dose of 60Co radiation than Cases B and C. The chromosomal aberrations, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN, the CBMN assay), and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the comet assay) examined in this study are biomarkers for cytogenetic abnormalities. After the lymphocytes collected from the victims were cultured, the frequencies of dicentric chromosomes and rings (dic + r) and CBMN in the first mitotic division detected in the lymphocytes of Case A were found to be substantially higher than in Cases B and C. Similarly, the DNA-DSB level found in the peripheral blood collected from Case A was much higher than those of Cases B and C. These results suggest that an acutely enhanced induction of the 60Co-induced cytogenetic abnormality frequency in humans depends on the dose of 60Co radiation. This finding is supported by the data obtained using practical techniques to evaluate early lymphoid-tissue abnormalities induced after exposure to acute radiation.
Wolbarst, A.B.; Wiley, A.L., Jr; Nemhauser, J.B.; Christensen, D.M.; Hendee, W.R. Medical response to a major radiologic emergency: A primer for medical and public health practitioners. Radiology 2010, 254, 660–677.
Djounova, J.; Guleva, I.; Negoicheva, K.; Mileva, I.; Panova, D.; Rupova, I.; Gigov, I. Initial medical diagnosis of patients severely irradiated in the accident with 60Co in Bulgaria. Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 2012, 151, 640–644.
Gupta, M.; Srivastava, N.; Dutta, S.; Shukla, S.; Dutta, A.; Verma, S.; Devi, M. Blood biomarkers in metal scrap workers accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation: A case study. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 2013, doi:10.1177/0960327113482477.
Wojcik, A.; Gregoire, E.; Hayata, I.; Roy, L.; Sommer, S.; Stephane, G.; Voisin, P. Cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes for the purpose of dose reconstruction: a review of three recent radiation accidents. Cytogenet. Genome. Res 2004, 104, 200–205.
Thierens, H.; de Ruyck, K.; Vral, A.; de Gelder, V.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Tawn, E.J.; Boesman, I. Cytogenetic biodosimetry of an accidental exposure of a radiological worker using multiple assays. Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 2005, 113, 408–414.
Harreus, U.A.; Kleinsasser, N.H.; Zieger, S.; Wallner, B.; Reiter, M.; Schuller, P.; Berghaus, A. Sensitivity to DNA-damage induction and chromosomal alterations in mucosa cells from patients with and without cancer of the oropharynx detected by a combination of comet assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mutat. Res 2004, 563, 131–138.
Osipov, A.N.; Buleeva, G.; Arkhangelskaya, E.; Klokov, D. In vivoγ-irradiation low dose threshold for suppression of DNA double strand breaks below the spontaneous level in mouse blood and spleen cells. Mutat. Res. 2013, doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2013.04.016.
Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Kopjar, N.; Razem, D.; Vekic, B.; Miljanic, S. Application of the alkaline comet assay in biodosimetry: assessment of in vivo DNA damage in human peripheral leukocytes after a gamma radiation incident. Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 2002, 98, 407–416.
Hu, Q.; Hill, R.P. Radiosensitivity, apoptosis and repair of DNA double-strand breaks in radiation-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants treated at different dose rates. Radiat. Res 1996, 146, 636–645.
Qiu, L.M.; Li, W.J.; Pang, X.Y.; Gao, Q.X.; Feng, Y.; Zhou, L.B.; Zhang, G.H. Observation of DNA damage of human hepatoma cells irradiated by heavy ions using comet assay. World J. Gastroenterol 2003, 9, 1450–1454.
Wada, S.; Kurahayashi, H.; Kobayashi, Y.; Funayama, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Natsuhori, M.; Ito, N. The relationship between cellular radiosensitivity and radiation-induced DNA damage measured by the comet assay. J. Vet. Med. Sci 2003, 65, 471–477.
Haines, G.A.; Hendry, J.H.; Daniel, C.P.; Morris, I.D. Germ cell and dose-dependent DNA damage measured by the comet assay in murine spermatozoaa after testicular X-irradiation. Biol. Reprod 2002, 67, 854–861.
Liu, Q.; Jiang, B.; Jiang, L.P.; Wu, Y.; Wang, X.G.; Zhao, F.L.; Fu, B.H.; Istvan, T.; Jiang, E. Clinical report of three cases of acute radiation sickness from a 60Co radiation accident in Henan Province in China. J. Radiat. Res 2008, 49, 63–69.
Konca, K.; Lankoff, A.; Banasik, A.; Lisowska, H.; Kuszewski, T.; Gozdz, S.; Koza, Z.; Wojcik, A. A cross-platform public domain PC image-analysis program for the comet assay. Mutat. Res 2003, 534, 15–20.