All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Lymphocytes from Victims Exposed to Cobalt-60 Radiation

DOI: 10.3390/ijms140917525

Keywords: radiation accident, chromosome aberration, micronucleus assay, comet assay, DNA-DSB

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


The present study investigates cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes, derived from three victims who were unfortunately exposed to cobalt-60 ( 60Co) radiation (the 1999 accident occurred in a village in China’s Henan province). Case A of the three victims was exposed to a higher dose of 60Co radiation than Cases B and C. The chromosomal aberrations, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN, the CBMN assay), and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the comet assay) examined in this study are biomarkers for cytogenetic abnormalities. After the lymphocytes collected from the victims were cultured, the frequencies of dicentric chromosomes and rings (dic + r) and CBMN in the first mitotic division detected in the lymphocytes of Case A were found to be substantially higher than in Cases B and C. Similarly, the DNA-DSB level found in the peripheral blood collected from Case A was much higher than those of Cases B and C. These results suggest that an acutely enhanced induction of the 60Co-induced cytogenetic abnormality frequency in humans depends on the dose of 60Co radiation. This finding is supported by the data obtained using practical techniques to evaluate early lymphoid-tissue abnormalities induced after exposure to acute radiation.


[1]  Wolbarst, A.B.; Wiley, A.L., Jr; Nemhauser, J.B.; Christensen, D.M.; Hendee, W.R. Medical response to a major radiologic emergency: A primer for medical and public health practitioners. Radiology 2010, 254, 660–677.
[2]  Djounova, J.; Guleva, I.; Negoicheva, K.; Mileva, I.; Panova, D.; Rupova, I.; Gigov, I. Initial medical diagnosis of patients severely irradiated in the accident with 60Co in Bulgaria. Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 2012, 151, 640–644.
[3]  Gupta, M.; Srivastava, N.; Dutta, S.; Shukla, S.; Dutta, A.; Verma, S.; Devi, M. Blood biomarkers in metal scrap workers accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation: A case study. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 2013, doi:10.1177/0960327113482477.
[4]  Agrawala, P.K.; Adhikari, J.S.; Chaudhury, N.K. Lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay in radiation biodosimetry. J. Pharm. Bioallied. Sci. 2010, 2, 197–201.
[5]  Sasaki, M.S. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of humanradiation exposures: Possibilities, problems and pitfalls. J. Radiat. Res 1992, 33, 44–53.
[6]  Lloyd, D.C.; Edwards, A.A. Biological Dosimetry after Radiation Accidents. In Chromosome Aberrations: Basic and Applied Aspects; Obe, G., Natarajan, A.T., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 1989; pp. 212–223.
[7]  Wojcik, A.; Gregoire, E.; Hayata, I.; Roy, L.; Sommer, S.; Stephane, G.; Voisin, P. Cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes for the purpose of dose reconstruction: a review of three recent radiation accidents. Cytogenet. Genome. Res 2004, 104, 200–205.
[8]  Thierens, H.; de Ruyck, K.; Vral, A.; de Gelder, V.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Tawn, E.J.; Boesman, I. Cytogenetic biodosimetry of an accidental exposure of a radiological worker using multiple assays. Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 2005, 113, 408–414.
[9]  Cytogenetic analysis for radiation dose assessment, a manual, Available online: (accessed on 14 August 2013).
[10]  Vral, A.; Fenech, M.; Thierens, H. The micronucleus assay as a biological dosimeter of in vivo ionising radiation exposure. Mutagenesis 2011, 26, 11–17.
[11]  The radiological accident in Istanbul, Available online: (accessed on 14 August 2013).
[12]  Harreus, U.A.; Kleinsasser, N.H.; Zieger, S.; Wallner, B.; Reiter, M.; Schuller, P.; Berghaus, A. Sensitivity to DNA-damage induction and chromosomal alterations in mucosa cells from patients with and without cancer of the oropharynx detected by a combination of comet assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mutat. Res 2004, 563, 131–138.
[13]  Hoffmann, H.; Speit, G. Assessment of DNA damage in peripheral blood of heavy smokers with the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Mutat. Res 2005, 581, 105–114.
[14]  Paulraj, R.; Behari, J. Single strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells exposed to microwave radiation. Mutat. Res 2006, 596, 76–80.
[15]  Verde, P.E.; Geracitano, L.A.; Amado, L.L.; Rosa, C.E.; Bianchini, A.; Monserrat, J.M. Application of public-domain statistical analysis software for evaluation and comparison of comet assay data. Mutat. Res 2006, 604, 71–82.
[16]  Osipov, A.N.; Buleeva, G.; Arkhangelskaya, E.; Klokov, D. In vivoγ-irradiation low dose threshold for suppression of DNA double strand breaks below the spontaneous level in mouse blood and spleen cells. Mutat. Res. 2013, doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2013.04.016.
[17]  Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Kopjar, N.; Razem, D.; Vekic, B.; Miljanic, S. Application of the alkaline comet assay in biodosimetry: assessment of in vivo DNA damage in human peripheral leukocytes after a gamma radiation incident. Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 2002, 98, 407–416.
[18]  Garcia, O.; Mandina, T. DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay in lymphocytes of children with 137Cs internal contamination caused by the Chernobyl accident. Mutat. Res 2005, 565, 191–197.
[19]  Cheong, H.S.; Seth, I.; Joiner, M.C.; Tucker, J.D. Relationships among micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds within individual cells in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Mutagenesis 2013, 28, 433–440.
[20]  Thierens, H.; Vral, A. The micronucleus assay in radiation accidents. Ann. Ist. Super. Sanita 2009, 45, 260–264.
[21]  Tice, R.R.; Strauss, G.H. The single cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay: A potential tool for detecting radiation-induced DNA damage in humans. Stem Cells 1995, 13, 207–214.
[22]  Calini, V.; Urani, C.; Camatini, M. Comet assay evaluation of DNA single- and double-strand breaks induction and repair in C3H10T1/2 cells. Cell. Biol. Toxicol 2002, 18, 369–379.
[23]  Hu, Q.; Hill, R.P. Radiosensitivity, apoptosis and repair of DNA double-strand breaks in radiation-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants treated at different dose rates. Radiat. Res 1996, 146, 636–645.
[24]  Qiu, L.M.; Li, W.J.; Pang, X.Y.; Gao, Q.X.; Feng, Y.; Zhou, L.B.; Zhang, G.H. Observation of DNA damage of human hepatoma cells irradiated by heavy ions using comet assay. World J. Gastroenterol 2003, 9, 1450–1454.
[25]  Wada, S.; Kurahayashi, H.; Kobayashi, Y.; Funayama, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Natsuhori, M.; Ito, N. The relationship between cellular radiosensitivity and radiation-induced DNA damage measured by the comet assay. J. Vet. Med. Sci 2003, 65, 471–477.
[26]  Haines, G.A.; Hendry, J.H.; Daniel, C.P.; Morris, I.D. Germ cell and dose-dependent DNA damage measured by the comet assay in murine spermatozoaa after testicular X-irradiation. Biol. Reprod 2002, 67, 854–861.
[27]  Liu, Q.; Jiang, B.; Jiang, L.P.; Wu, Y.; Wang, X.G.; Zhao, F.L.; Fu, B.H.; Istvan, T.; Jiang, E. Clinical report of three cases of acute radiation sickness from a 60Co radiation accident in Henan Province in China. J. Radiat. Res 2008, 49, 63–69.
[28]  Banath, J.P.; Fushiki, M.; Olive, P.L. Rejoining of DNA single and double-strand breads in human white blood cells exposed to ionizing radiation. Int. J. Radiat. Biol 1998, 73, 649–660.
[29]  Konca, K.; Lankoff, A.; Banasik, A.; Lisowska, H.; Kuszewski, T.; Gozdz, S.; Koza, Z.; Wojcik, A. A cross-platform public domain PC image-analysis program for the comet assay. Mutat. Res 2003, 534, 15–20.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal