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Diseases  2013 

Effect of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors Clustering with or without Arterial Hypertension on Arterial Stiffness: A Narrative Review

DOI: 10.3390/diseases1010051

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, arterial stiffness, central aortic pressure, arterial hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, hyperuricaemia, non alcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea

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Abstract:

The clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors, either when called metabolic syndrome (MetS) or not, substantially increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and causes mortality. One of the possible mechanisms for this clustering's adverse effect is an increase in arterial stiffness (AS), and in high central aortic blood pressure (CABP), which are significant and independent CVD risk factors. Arterial hypertension was connected to AS long ago; however, other MetS components (obesity, dyslipidaemia, dysglycaemia) or MetS associated abnormalities not included in MetS diagnostic criteria (renal dysfunction, hyperuricaemia, hypercoaglutability, menopause, non alcoholic fatty liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnea) have been implicated too. We discuss the evidence connecting these cardio-metabolic risk factors, which negatively affect AS and finally increase CVD risk. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of possible lifestyle and pharmacological interventions on all these cardio-metabolic risk factors, in an effort to reduce CVD risk and identify features that should be taken into consideration when treating MetS patients with or without arterial hypertension.

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