All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Caries Experience and Salivary Parameters among Overweight Children and Adolescents

DOI: 10.3390/dj1040031

Keywords: obesity, overweight, dental caries, saliva, child, adolescent

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excess body fat, which can lead to other health problems, including insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, asthma, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Currently, obesity and dental caries are major public health concerns and dietary habits are a very important common component of their etiological factors, showing some correlation with the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals presenting these diseases. In relation to caries experience, the literature suggests a correlation between obesity and dental caries in children and adolescents, in primary and/or permanent dentition, though divergent results exist regarding assessment based on the method recommended by the WHO (1997), i.e., restricted to carious lesions with cavitation. Some studies indicate greater prevalence of proximal carious lesions in obese adolescents compared with those with normal weight. Salivary changes, such as the concentrations of phosphate, sialic acid, proteins and immunoglobulins and in peroxidase activity could explain the increased probability of obese children presenting greater risk of dental caries. Thus, it is important to consider the contribution of salivary parameters in caries experience of overweight children and adolescents and the implementation of preventive measures in this population.

References

[1]  World Health Organization (WHO). Childhood overweight and obesity. Available online: http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood/en/index.html (accessed on 28 August 2013).
[2]  Schwarzenberg, S.J.; Sinaiko, A.R. Obesity and inflammation in children. Paediatr. Respir. Rev. 2006, 7, 239–246, doi:10.1016/j.prrv.2006.08.002.
[3]  Dandona, P.; Chaudhuri, A.; Ghanim, H.; Mohanty, P. Proinflammatory effects of glucose and anti-inflammatory effect of insulin: Relevance to cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 2007, 99, 15B–26B.
[4]  Darvall, K.A.; Sam, R.C.; Silverman, S.H.; Bradbury, A.W.; Adam, D.J. Obesity and thrombosis. Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 2007, 33, 223–233, doi:10.1016/j.ejvs.2006.10.006.
[5]  Volp, A.C.; Alfenas, R.C.; Costa, N.M.; Minim, V.P.; Stringueta, P.C.; Bressan, J. Inflammation biomarkers capacity in predicting the metabolic syndrome. Arq. Bras. Endocrinol. Metabol. 2008, 52, 537–549.
[6]  Lyon, C.J.; Law, R.E.; Hsueh, W. Minireview: Adiposity, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Endocrinology. 2003, 144, 2195–2200, doi:10.1210/en.2003-0285.
[7]  Prins, J.B. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. MeTable 2002, 16, 639–651, doi:10.1053/beem.2002.0222.
[8]  Fantuzzi, G. Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2005, 115, 911–919, doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.02.023.
[9]  Antunes, H.; Santos, C.; Carvalho, S. Serum leptin levels in overweight children and adolescents. Br. J. Nutr. 2008, 28, 1–5.
[10]  Galgani, M.; Procaccini, C.; de Rosa, V.; Carbone, F.; Chieffi, P.; La Cava, A.; Matarese, G. Leptin modulates the survival of autoreactive CD4+ T Cells through the nutrient/energy-sensing mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. J. Immunol. 2010, 185, 7474–7479, doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1001674.
[11]  Wu, J.T.; Wu, L.L. Linking inflammation and atherogenesis: Soluble markers identified for the detection of risk factors and for early risk assessment. Clin. Chim. Acta. 2006, 366, 74–80, doi:10.1016/j.cca.2005.10.016.
[12]  Yudkin, J.S.; Kumari, M.; Humphries, S.E.; Mohamed-Ali, V. Inflammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: Is interleukin-6 the link? Atherosclerosis. 2000, 148, 209–214, doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(99)00463-3.
[13]  Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.; Nikkel, D.; Brand, H.S. Oral aspects of obesity. Int. Dent. J. 2007, 57, 249–256.
[14]  Marshall, T.A.; Eichenberger-Gilmore, J.M.; Broffitt, B.A.; Warren, J.J.; Levy, S.M. Dental caries and childhood obesity: Roles of diet and socioeconomic status. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. 2007, 35, 449–458, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.2006.00353.x.
[15]  Alm, A.; F?hraeus, C.; Wendt, L.K.; Koch, G.; Andersson-G?re, B.; Birkhed, D. Body adiposity status in teenagers and snacking habits in early childhood in relation to approximal caries at 15 years of age. Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 2008, 18, 189–196, doi:10.1111/j.1365-263X.2007.00906.x.
[16]  Armfield, J.M.; Roberts-Thomson, K.F.; Spencer, A.J. The Child dental health survey, Australia 1999: Trends across the 1990s. Dental Statistics and Research Series; Canberra: AIHW, Australia, 2003.
[17]  Booth, M.; Dobbins, T.; Okely, A.; Denney-Wilson, E.; Hardy, L. Trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among young Australians, 1985–1997, and 2004. Obesity 2007, 15, 1089–1095, doi:10.1038/oby.2007.586.
[18]  Roberts, M.W.; Wright, J.T. Nonnutritive, low caloric substitutes for food sugars: Clinical implications for addressing the incidence of dental caries and overweight/obesity. Int. J. Dent. 2012, p. 625701. Available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3296175/ (accessed on 3 August 2013).
[19]  World Health Organization. Oral Health Surveys: Basic Methods, 4th ed. ed.; WHO: Geneva, Switzerland, 1997.
[20]  Moreira, P.V.L.; Severo, A.M.R.; Rosenblat, A. Cárie Dentária e Estado Nutricional em Adolescentes de Jo?o Pessoa - Paraíba – Brasil. Rev. Bras. Cien. Saúde. 2002, 6, 123–134. (in Portuguese).
[21]  Granville-Garcia, A.F.; Menezes, V.A.; Lira, P.I.; Ferreira, J.M.; Leite-Cavalcanti, A. Obesity and dental caries among preschool children in Brazil. Rev. Salud. Publ. 2008, 10, 788–795.
[22]  Hong, L.; Ahmed, A.; McCunniff, M.; Overman, P.; Mathew, M. Obesity and dental caries in children aged 2–6 years in the United States: National health and nutrition examination survey 1999–2002. J. Public Health Dent. 2008, 68, 227–233, doi:10.1111/j.1752-7325.2008.00083.x.
[23]  Tramini, P.; Molinari, N.; Tentscher, M.; Demattei, C.; Schulte, A.G. Association between caries experience and body mass index in 12-year-old French children. Caries Res. 2009, 43, 468–473, doi:10.1159/000264684.
[24]  Sánchez-Pérez, L.; Irigoyen, M.E.; Zepeda, M. Dental caries, tooth eruption timing and obesity: A longitudinal study in a group of Mexican schoolchildren. Acta. Odontol. Scand. 2010, 68, 57–64, doi:10.3109/00016350903449367.
[25]  Willershausen, B.; Haas, G.; Krummenauer, F.; Hohenfellner, K. Relationship between high weight and caries frequency in German elementary school children. Eur. J. Med. Res. 2004, 9, 400–404.
[26]  Gerdin, E.W.; Angbratt, M.; Aronsson, K.; Eriksson, E.; Johansson, I. Dental caries and body mass index by socio-economic status in swedish children. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. 2008, 36, 459–465, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.2007.00421.x.
[27]  Bailleul-Forestier, I.; Lopes, K.; Souames, M.; Azoguy-Levy, S.; Frelut, M.L.; Boy-Lefevre, M.L. Caries experience in a severely obese adolescent population. Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 2007, 17, 358–363, doi:10.1111/j.1365-263X.2007.00848.x.
[28]  Sharma, A.; Hegde, A.M. Relationship between body mass index, caries experience and dietary preferences in children. J. Clin. Pediatr. Dent. 2009, 34, 49–52.
[29]  Hilgers, K.K.; Kinane, D.E.; Scheetz, J.P. Association between childhood obesity and smooth-surface caries in posterior teeth: A preliminary study. Pediatr. Dent. 2006, 28, 23–28.
[30]  Kantovitz, K.R.; Pascon, F.M.; Rontani, R.M.P.; Gavi?o, M.B.D. Obesity and dental caries—a systematic review. Oral Health Prev. Dent. 2006, 4, 137–144.
[31]  Chen, W.; Chen, P.; Chen, S.C.; Shih, W.T.; Hu, H.C. Lack of association between obesity and dental caries in three-year-old children. Acta. Paed. Sin. 1998, 39, 109–111.
[32]  Tuomi, T. Pilot study on obesity in caries prediction. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. 1989, 17, 289–291, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.1989.tb00638.x.
[33]  Hooley, M.; Skouteris, H.; Boganin, C.; Satur, J.; Kilpatrick, N. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescentes: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011. Syst. Rev. 2012, 1, p. 57. Available online: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2F2046-4053-1-57#page-1 (accessed on 4 September 2013).
[34]  Wilson, R.F.; Ashley, F.P. Identification of caries risk in schoolchildren: Salivary buffering capacity and bacterial counts, sugar intake and caries experience as predictors of 2-years caries increment. Brit. Dent. J. 1989, 167, 99–102, doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.4806930.
[35]  Edgar, W.M. Saliva: Its secretion, composition and functions. Br. Dent. J. 1992, 25, 305–312, doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.4807861.
[36]  Bernardi, M.J.; Reis, A.; Loguercio, A.D.; Kehrig, R.; Leite, M.F.; Nicolau, J. Study of the buffering capacity, pH and salivary flow rate in type 2 well-controlled and poorly controlled diabetic patients. Oral Health Prev. Dent. 2007, 5, 73–78.
[37]  Nauntofte, B.; Tenevuo, J.O.; Lagerl?f, F. Secretion and Composition of Saliva. In Dental Caries. The disease and its clinical management; Fejerskov, O., Kidd, E., Eds.; Blackwell Munksgard: Oxford, UK, 2003; pp. 7–29.
[38]  Leone, C.W.; Oppenheim, F.G. Physical and chemical aspects of saliva as indicators of risk for dental caries in humans. J. Dent. Educ. 2001, 6510, 1054–1062.
[39]  Modéer, T.; Blomberg, C.C.; Wondimu, B.; Julihn, A.; Marcus, C. Association between obesity, flow rate of whole saliva, and dental caries in adolescents. Obesity. 2010, 18, 2367–2373, doi:10.1038/oby.2010.63.
[40]  Flink, H.; Bergdahl, M.; Tegelberg, A.; Rosenblad, A.; Lagerl?f, F. Prevalence of hyposalivation in relation to general health, body mass index and remaining teeth in different age groups of adults. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. 2008, 36, 523–531, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.2008.00432.x.
[41]  Ship, J.A. Diagnosing, managing, and preventing salivary gland disorders. Oral Dis. 2002, 8, 77–89, doi:10.1034/j.1601-0825.2002.2o837.x.
[42]  Santos, M.T.; Guaré, R.O.; Leite, M.F.; Ferreira, M.C.; Dur?o, M.S.; Jardim, J.R. Salivary osmolality in individuals with cerebral palsy. Arch. Oral. Biol. 2010, 55, 855–860, doi:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2010.07.016.
[43]  Oliver, S.J.; Laing, S.J.; Wilson, S.; Bilzon, J.L.; Walsh, N.P. Saliva indices track hypohydration during 48h of fluid restriction or combined fluid and energy restriction. Arch. Oral. Biol. 2008, 53, 975–980, doi:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2008.05.002.
[44]  Tenovuo, J. Noimmunoglobulin defense factors in human saliva, human saliva: clinical chemistry and microbiology. C.R.C. 1989, 2, 55–91.
[45]  Pannunzio, E.; Amancio, O.M.; Vitalle, M.S.; Souza, D.N.; Mendes, F.M.; Nicolau, J. Analysis of the stimulated whole saliva in overweight and obese school children. Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 2010, 56, 32–36, doi:10.1590/S0104-42302010000100012.
[46]  Brandtzaeg, P.; Fjellanger, I.; Gjeruldsen, S.T. Human secretory immunoglobulins. I. salivary secretions from individuals with normal or low levels of serum immunoglobulins. Scand. J. Haematol. Suppl. 1970, 12, 3–83.
[47]  Brandtzaeg, P. Synthesis and Secretion of Human Immunoglobulins. in Glandular Mechanism of Salivary Secretion; Garret, J.R., Ekstr?n, J., Andreson, L.C., Eds.; Front of Oral Biol.: Karger, London, UK, 1998; Volume 10, pp. 167–199.
[48]  Delacroix, D.L.; Vaerman, J.P. Function of the humam liver in IgA homeostasis in plasma. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1983, 409, 383–401, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1983.tb26884.x.
[49]  Brandtzaeg, P. Role of secretory antibodies in the defense against infections. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 2003, 293, 3–5, doi:10.1078/1438-4221-00241.
[50]  Taubman, M.A.; Smith, D.J. Significance of salivary antibody in dental disease. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1993, 20, 202–215, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb18354.x.
[51]  Kinane, D.F. Periodontitis modified by systemic factors. Ann. Periodontol. 1999, 4, 54–64, doi:10.1902/annals.1999.4.1.54.
[52]  Ranadheer, E.; Nayak, U.A.; Reddy, N.V.; Rao, V.A. The relationship between salivary Iga levels and dental caries in children. J. Indian Soc. Pedod. Prev. Dent. 2011, 29, 106–112, doi:10.4103/0970-4388.84681.
[53]  Thaweboon, B.; Nakornchai, S.; Jitmaitree, S. Salivary secretory Iga, Ph, flow rates, mutans streptococci and candida in children with rampant caries. Southeast. Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 2008, 39, 893–899.
[54]  Chandra, R.K. Nutrition and the Immune System: An Introduction. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997, 66, 460S–463S.
[55]  Fernández-Sánchez, A.; Madrigal-Santillán, E.; Bautista, M.; Esquivel-Soto, J.; Morales-González, A.; Esquivel-Chirino, C.; Durante-Montiel, I.; Sánchez-Rivera, G.; Valadez-Veja, C.; Morales-González, J.A. Inflammation, oxidative stress and obesity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 3117–3132, doi:10.3390/ijms12053117.
[56]  Zú?iga-Torres, M.G.; Martínez-Carrillo, B.E.; Pardo-Morales, R.V.; W?rnberg, J.; Marcos, A.; Benítez-Arciniega, A.D.; Valdés-Ramos, R. Are immunoglobulin concentrations associated with the body composition of adolescents? Hum. Immunol. 2009, 70, 891–894, doi:10.1016/j.humimm.2009.08.008.
[57]  Pallaro, A.; Barbeito, S.; Taberner, P.; Marino, P.; Franchello, A.; Strasnoy, I.; Ramos, O.; Slobodianik, N. Total salivary Iga, Serum C3c And Iga in obese school children. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2002, 13, 539–542, doi:10.1016/S0955-2863(02)00198-5.
[58]  Denny, P.C. A saliva-based prognostic test for dental caries susceptibility. J. Dent. Hyg. 2009, 83, 175–176.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus