全部 标题 作者
关键词 摘要

Buildings  2013 

The Role of Environmentally Conscious Architecture and Planning As Components of Future National Development Plans in Egypt

DOI: 10.3390/buildings3040713

Keywords: environment, consumption, energy, resources, Egypt, development

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Egypt has been experiencing challenging economic, social and political disturbance during the end of the twentieth century and towards the beginning of the twenty-first. With its fast expanding population, high consumption rate and economic deficit, the Egyptian community continues to experience a low quality of living. These issues contributed greatly to the uprising, following the Tunisian model, in January, 2011. However, the political change that followed did not help a lot, as development strategies are still far from being sustainable. In the beginning of the millennium, Egypt experienced an 8.6% energy deficit, followed by a growing energy crisis [1]. Knowing that almost 50% of the energy produced in Egypt is consumed inside buildings [2], environmentally conscious architecture can be a very powerful tool in development plans, as it can reasonably reduce the consumption of energy and other resources and enhance the quality of living for people. This work analyzes the supposed role of environmentally conscious architecture and, hence, evaluates its importance as a major component of national development plans in the near future. The analysis encompasses a review of the status quo in terms of consumption patterns and required services and, then, compares it with the case in which environmentally conscious architecture is adopted.

References

[1]  Saber, M. Environment in Jeopardy: Consequences of climate change in Egypt. J. Ecol. Nat. Environ. 2004, 1, 191–195.
[2]  Henzler, M. Study on Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings in Egypt. 2012. Available online: http://www.adelphi.de/en/projects/project_database/dok/43525.php?pid=587 (accessed on 19 June 2013).
[3]  Ahram Online. Egypt Population Reaches 91 Million, Grows 18 percent in Eight Years[Online]. Al-Ahram Newspaper, 30 August 2012. Available online: http://english.ahram.org.eg/News/51634.aspx (accessed on 30 June 2013).
[4]  UN-Habitat. Global Report on Human Settlements 2003, The Challenge of Slums, Part IV: “Summary of City Case Studies”; Earthscan: London, UK, 2003; pp. 195–228.
[5]  Baraka, H. Green Profile: Interview with Farouq El Baz. Available online: http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/green-profile-interview-farouk-al-baz (accessed on 11 June 2013).
[6]  Ahram Online. Egypt Vehicles up 13.5 Percent in 2010, New Figures Show[Online]. Al-Ahram Newspaper, 4 August 2011. Available online: http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/3/12/18085/Business/Economy/Egypt-vehicles-up--per-cent-in-,-new-figures-show.aspx (accessed on 11 June 2013).
[7]  Rappoport, S. History of Egypt; The Grolier Society: London, UK, 2005; pp. 248–257.
[8]  Myntti, C. Parisalong the Nile:Architecture in Cairo from the Belle Epoque; American University in Cairo Press: Cairo, Egypt, 2003.
[9]  Wilsons, A.T. The Suez Canal; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 1939; p. 54.
[10]  Abu-Zeid, M.A.; El-Shibini, F.Z. Egypt’s high aswan dam. Water Resour. Dev. 1997, 13, 209–217, doi:10.1080/07900629749836.
[11]  Agence France-Presse (AFP). 30 Years after Bread Riots, Egypt Reform Moves forward[Online]. Daily News Egypt, 21 January 2007. Available online: http://www.dailystaregypt.com/article.aspx? ArticleID=5112 (accessed on 15 March 2013).
[12]  Perr, J. Hosni Mubarak’s Economic Achievements[Online]. Daily Finance, 10 February 2011. Available online: http://www.dailyfinance.com/2011/02/10/hosni-mubaraks-economic-achievements/ (accessed on 17 July 2013).
[13]  Selim, T.H. Monopoly: The case of Egyptian steel. J. Bus. Case Stud. 2006, 2, 85–91.
[14]  World Bank DataBank Home Page. Available online: http://databank.worldbank.org (accessed on 13 July 2013).
[15]  Osman, H.M. Hydro Development in Egypt: Lessons From High Aswan Dam. In Proceedings of the WCD Regional Consultation, Cairo, Egypt, 8–9 December 1999.
[16]  World Population Data Sheet 2012; U.S. Population Reference Bureau. 2012. Available online: http://www.prb.org/pdf12/2012-population-data-sheet_eng.pdf (accessed on 15 July 2013).
[17]  FAO GIEWS Country Briefs: Egypt. Available online: http://www.fao.org/giews/countrybrief/country.jsp?code=EGY (accessed on 13 April 2013).
[18]  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). AR4-Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report; IPCC: Geneva, Switzerland, 2007.
[19]  Vella, J. The Future of Food and Water Security in New Egypt; Future Directions International Pty Ltd.: Dalkeith, Australia, 2012.
[20]  Eid, M. Climate Change Studies on Egyptian Agriculture. In Proceedings of the Egypt-US Workshop on Global Climate Change, NARSS, EEAA and USEPA, Cairo, Egypt, 10–12 May 1999.
[21]  Salem, M.; Yassin, H. Minister: Egypt Imports 40 Percent of Its Food[Online]. Egypt Independent, 6 August 2010. Available online: http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/minister-egypt-imports-40-its-food (accessed on 18 March 2013).
[22]  National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Egypt Flood. n.d. Available online: http://flood.firetree.net/?ll=30.9286,30.5370&zoom=7&m=1 (accessed on 11 June 2013).
[23]  El Quosy, D. Integrated Water Management and Farmers Participation in Egypt. In Proceeding of the IGBP Regional Workshop, MENA, Cairo, Egypt, 20–21 November 2008.
[24]  Global Research HomePage. Top Ten Countries at Risk of Water Shortages. 2010. Available online: http://www.globalresearch.ca/top-ten-countries-at-risk-of-water-shortages/19996 (accessed on 23 March 2013).
[25]  Al-Awady, S. Egypt on the World List of Poorest Countries in Water Resources, 22 March 2011. Available online: http://www.resourcecrisis.com/index.php/water/679-135 (accessed on 25 July 2013).
[26]  Hussein, M. Post Morsi: Egypt’s Energy Woes Far from Over[Online]. Al-Ahram Newspaper, 21 July 2013. Available online: http://english.ahram.org.eg/News/77018.aspx (accessed on 20 July 2013).
[27]  Sims, D. Residential Informality in Greater Cairo: Typologies, Representative Areas, Quantification, Valuation, and Causal Factors. Master’s Thesis, 2000.
[28]  Egyptian Green Building Council Official Website. Available online: http://www.egypt-gbc.gov.eg/ (accessed on 24 July 2013).
[29]  Fathy, H. Architecture for the Poor; The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL, USA, 1973.
[30]  Aqarmap Website Florenta El-Maadi. Available online: http://aqarmap.com/eg/en/compounds/details/cairo/174/florenta (accessed on 18 July 2013).
[31]  Weisensee, P.; Ragheb, M. Integrated Wind and Solar Qattara Depression Project With Pumped Storage as Part of Desertec. In Proceedings of the RETBE’12 9th International Conference, Alexandria, Egypt, 22–24 December 2012.
[32]  Bakry, W. The Dream City: The First Architectural Competition towards Getting out of the Valley[Online]. Al-Masry Al-Youm Newspaper, 27 September 2011. Available online: http://www.almasryalyoum.com/node/500049 (accessed on 23 June 2013).
[33]  Hassan, A. Sheikh Zayed City Council Celebrates “Green City”[Online]. Al-Youm Al-Sabea Newspaper, 7 February 2013. Available online: http://www.youm7.com/News.asp?NewsID=937786 (accessed on 11 June 2013).
[34]  Abdin, A.E.; Gaafar, I. Rational Water Use in Egypt. In Technological Perspectives for Rational Use of Water Resources in the Mediterranean Region; The International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM): Bari, Italy, 2009.
[35]  Davis, J. Energy-Saving Deep Retrofits[Online]. Urban Land Institute, 14 June 2012. Available online: http://urbanland.uli.org/Articles/2012/April/ul/DavisEnergy (accessed on 11 June 2013).

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus