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ISRN Stroke  2013 

Prognostic Value of Complete Blood Count and Electrolyte Panel during Emergency Department Evaluation for Acute Ischemic Stroke

DOI: 10.1155/2013/974236

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Abstract:

Objective. To determine whether routine laboratory parameters are predictors of early mortality after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Methods. The cohort consisted of 522 consecutive patients with AIS presenting to the emergency department (ED) at a tertiary referral center during a 27-month period, residing within the surrounding ten counties. Serum laboratory values were obtained for all patients and categorized according to whether the levels were low, normal, or high. These laboratory results were evaluated as potential predictors of 90-day mortality using Cox proportional hazards models. The associations were summarized by calculating risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results. The presence of elevated white blood cell count (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–3.4), low bicarbonate (RR 4.2, 95% CI 2.6–6.7), low calcium (RR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.9), and high glucose (RR 1.3, 95% 1.1–1.6) were each univariately associated with significantly higher mortality within the first 90 days. Based on fitting a multivariate Cox regression model, elevated white blood cell count, low bicarbonate, and high glucose were each identified as being jointly associated with early mortality ( ). Conclusion. Early leukocytosis, acidosis, and hyperglycemia and hypocalcemia in AIS appear to be associated with early mortality. Whether addressing these factors will impact survival remains to be investigated. 1. Introduction For patients who present with chief complaint of acute ischemic stroke, the American Stroke Association recommends a set of diagnostic studies [1] to be done at presentation, with the intent of optimizing and expediting the care of these patients. From the Emergency Physicians’ perspective many tests are simply part of a routine battery, often without direct impact on emergency department (ED) management, diagnostic or prognostic value. In this study, we sought to determine whether the routine complete blood count (CBC) and electrolyte panel include any components that are markers of early mortality in acute ischemic stroke. Specifically, the parameters of interest were those obtained as part of routine clinical investigation. 2. Methods 2.1. Study Design This study was an observational study using a consecutive sample of local residents presenting to the ED with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The primary outcome measure was death at 90 days. This study was approved by the Mayo Clinic Institutional Review Board. 2.2. Study Population and Setting This study was conducted at the Saint Marys Hospital, a tertiary referral academic medical center with an annual ED

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