Objective. The aim of the study is to investigate the possible associations between the blood groups ABO and Rhesus systems and the presence of keloids in patients with black skin. Method. This case-control study was conducted between September 2007 and August 2011 comparing dermatologic outpatients with keloids to matched controls recruited in preanesthetic consultation at Tokoin Teaching Hospital of Lomé (Togo). Results. The distribution of different ABO blood groups and Rhesus blood groups in both groups (cases versus controls) was not significantly different. This distribution of different blood groups was superimposed on the general population of blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Center of Lomé. Univariate analysis between each blood group and the presence of keloid does not yield any statistically significant association between blood groups and presence of keloids in the subjects. Conclusion. The study shows no significant association between blood groups and the presence of keloids in our patients. Further investigation needs to be conducted to elucidate this hypothesis further by conducting multicenter studies of several ethnic groups. 1. Introduction Keloids are defined as intradermal tumors corresponding to an abnormal response of tissue to injury in predisposed individuals . Factors that play a major role in keloid development are genetic predisposition coupled with some forms of skin trauma. Transforming growth factor has been implicated as the main factor responsible for the abnormal proliferation of keloid fibroblasts and excessive production of collagen. The red cell alloantigens of blood group are present on the membrane surface of red blood cells and certain epithelial cells . Several publications have documented the associations between blood group and certain skin diseases [3–9]. In a study conducted in 1969 to 1970 on 486 patients with keloids in the city of Madras, South Indian, Ramakrishnan et al. in 1974 had found a predominance of blood group A, compared to the local population of this city (34.96% against 21.38% in the local population) . And up to today, no studies have confirmed this association. In the context of our study, in the sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of keloids is high, and keloids represent 1.2% of dermatological consultations in Lomé . In addition, the difficulties of management are arguments to search for possible factors associated with these conditions, and for their possible prevention. The main objective of this study is to investigate possible associations between blood
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