All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Ship Bow Force-Deformation Curves for Ship-Impact Demand of Bridges considering Effect of Pile-Cap Depth

DOI: 10.1155/2014/201425

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Since static analysis procedures in the vessel impact-resistant design codes neglect dynamic amplification effects related to bridge mass, ship-impact responses of bridges may be potentially underestimated. For this reason, several dynamic vessel-impact analysis techniques had been recently proposed, where a force-deformation curve was employed to model the vessel bow stiffness. Most of the recent works mainly focused on the force-deformation curves of the barge bows rather than the ship bows. In this paper, a high-resolution finite element model is developed to obtain the ship bow force-deformation curves. The global and local characteristics of the ship bow force-deformation curves are discussed based on the finite element crush analyses between the ship bows and the rigid walls. Effect of pile-cap depth on the force-deformation curves (rather than only impact forces) is studied in detail, and the corresponding empirical equations are developed using an energy ratio method. Finally, a practical example of ship-bridge collision is investigated to validate the force-deformation curves considering the effect of pile-cap depth. It is found from the case study that the effect of pile-cap depth plays an important role in quantifying structural demand under impact loads. The case study also indicates that the developed equations are reasonable in practical applications. 1. Introduction With the rapid growths in the numbers of merchant ships and bridges over navigable waterways, the frequency and severity of vessel-bridge collisions have markedly increased [1–3]. From 1951 to 2000 (over a 50-year period), 617 bridge failures in the United States were investigated by Harik et al. [4] and Wardhana and Hadipriono [5]. Out of the total reported failures, 29 (about 5%) bridge failures were due to vessel collision, which was one of the most likely causes. In China, one of the recent catastrophic accidents is the collapse of the Jiujiang Bridge over the Xijiang River. It was hit by a fully loaded cargo ship (about 2000 tons) in June 2007, resulting in the loss of nine lives and the collapse of 200-meter bridge deck. In March 2008, the Jintang Bridge connecting Jintang Island to Ningbo was struck by an empty bulk carrier (about 10,000?DWT), causing 4 fatalities and the collapse of a 60-meter span. Therefore, the need is evident for bridges crossing navigable waterways to minimize their vulnerability to damage from vessel collisions. Compared with well-established seismic and wind-resistant designs, vessel impact-resistant design of bridges is still in its infancy

References

[1]  O. D. Larsen, Ship Collision with Bridges: The Interaction Between Vessel Traffic and Bridge Structures, IABSE, Zürich, Switzerland, 1993.
[2]  M. Knott and Z. Prucz, “Vessel collision design of bridges,” in Bridge Engineering Handbook, W. F. Chen and L. Duan, Eds., CRC Press, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
[3]  AASHTO, Guide Specifications and Commentary for Vessel Collision Design of Highway Bridges, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC, USA, 2009.
[4]  I. Harik, A. Shaaban, H. Gesund, G. Valli, and S. Wang, “United States bridge failures, 1951–1988,” Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 272–277, 1990.
[5]  K. Wardhana and F. C. Hadipriono, “Analysis of recent bridge failures in the United States,” Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 144–150, 2003.
[6]  BSI, Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures—part 1-7: General Actions-Accidental Actions, in: part 1-7: General Actions-Accidental Actions, London, UK, 2006.
[7]  P. T. Pedersen, S. Valsg?rd, D. Olsen, and S. Spangenberg, “Ship impacts: bow collisions,” International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 163–187, 1993.
[8]  Ministry of Communications, General Code for Design of Highway Bridges and Culverts (JTG D60-2004), China Communications Press, Beijing, China, 2004.
[9]  Ministry of Railways, Fundamental Code for Design on Railway Bridge and Culvert (TB10002. 1-2005), China Railway Publishing House, Beijing, China, 2005.
[10]  G. R. Consolazio and D. R. Cowan, “Numerically efficient dynamic analysis of barge collisions with bridge piers,” Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 131, no. 8, pp. 1256–1266, 2005.
[11]  M. T. Davidson, G. R. Consolazio, and D. J. Getter, “Dynamic amplification of pier column internal forces due to barge-bridge collision,” Transportation Research Record, no. 2172, pp. 11–22, 2010.
[12]  W. Fan and W. C. Yuan, “Shock spectrum analysis method for dynamic demand of bridge structures subjected to barge collisions,” Computers and Structures, vol. 90-91, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2012.
[13]  D. J. Getter, G. R. Consolazio, and M. T. Davidson, “Equivalent static analysis method for barge impact-resistant bridge design,” Journal of Bridge Engineering, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 718–727, 2011.
[14]  P. Yuan and I. E. Harik, “One-dimensional model for multi-barge flotillas impacting bridge piers,” Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 437–447, 2008.
[15]  W. Fan, W. C. Yuan, Z. Yang, and Q. W. Fan, “Dynamic demand of bridge structure subjected to vessel impact using simplified interaction model,” Journal of Bridge Engineering, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 117–126, 2011.
[16]  W. Fan, Dynamic demand of bridge structures and capacity of pile-supported protection structures under vessel impacts [Ph.D. thesis], Tongji University, Shanghai, China, 2012 (Chinese).
[17]  K. E. Meier-D?rnberg, Ship Collisions, Safety Zones, and Loading Assumptions For Structures in Inland Waterways, Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (Association of German Engineers), Duesseldorf, Germany, 1983.
[18]  G. R. Consolazio and D. R. Cowan, “Nonlinear analysis of barge crush behavior and its relationship to impact resistant bridge design,” Computers and Structures, vol. 81, no. 8–11, pp. 547–557, 2003.
[19]  Y. Sha and H. Hao, “Laboratory tests and numerical simulations of barge impact on circular reinforced concrete piers,” Engineering Structures, vol. 46, pp. 593–605, 2013.
[20]  P. Yuan, Modeling, simulation and analysis of multi-barge flotillas impacting bridge piers [Ph.D. thesis], University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky, USA, 2005.
[21]  G. R. Consolazio, M. T. Davidson, and D. R. Cowan, “Barge bow force-deformation relationships for barge-bridge collision analysis,” Transportation Research Record, no. 2131, pp. 3–14, 2009.
[22]  LSTC, LS-DYNA keyword user's manual Version 971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, 2009.
[23]  H. Endo, Y. Yamada, O. Kitamura, and K. Suzuki, “Model test on the collapse strength of the buffer bow structures,” Marine Structures, vol. 15, no. 4-5, pp. 365–381, 2002.
[24]  Y. Yamada, H. Endo, H. Kawano, and M. Hirakata, “Collapse mechanism of the buffer bow structure on axial crushing,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, J. S. Chung, J. Wardenier, R. M. W. Frederking, and W. Koterayama, Eds., pp. 534–541, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, May 2003.
[25]  Shanghai Ship and Shipping Research Institute, “Vessel impact forces and anti-collision measures of the 4th Nanjing Bridge,” Report of Shanghai Ship and Shipping Research Institute, Shanghai, China, 2005.
[26]  Y. Sha and H. Hao, “Nonlinear finite element analysis of barge collision with a single bridge pier,” Engineering Structures, vol. 41, pp. 63–76, 2012.
[27]  Y. Shi, H. Hao, and Z. X. Li, “Numerical derivation of pressure-impulse diagrams for prediction of RC column damage to blast loads,” International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1213–1227, 2008.
[28]  W. Fan, W. C. Yuan, and M. Zhou, “A nonlinear dynamic macro-element for demand assessment of bridge substructures subjected to ship collision,” Journal of Zhejiang University: Science A, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 826–836, 2011.
[29]  H. S. Alsos and J. Amdahl, “On the resistance of tanker bottom structures during stranding,” Marine Structures, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 218–237, 2007.
[30]  R. Tornqvist and B. C. Simonsen, “Safety and structural crashworthiness of ship structures, modelling tools and application in Design,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Collision and Grounding of Ships (ICCGS '04), Izu, Japan, 2004.
[31]  H. Svensson, “Protection of bridge piers against ship collision,” Steel Construction, vol. 2, pp. 21–32, 2009.
[32]  Y. Yamada and H. Endo, “Experimental and numerical study on the collapse strength of the bulbous bow structure in oblique collision,” Marine Technology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 42–53, 2008.
[33]  A. J. Ye, M. Ren, J. Jin, P. C. yin, and Z. Y. Su, “Seismic performance of Chongqi Bridge connecting Chongming to Qidong over Yangtze River,” Report of State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University (in Chinese), 2008.
[34]  E. S. Pearson and H. O. Hartley, Biometrika Tables for Statisticians, vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1959.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal