The cross-linked polymer gel systems are being used increasingly to redirect or modify reservoir fluid movement in the vicinity of injection wells for the purpose of permeability/profile modification job in the oil field due to their high temperature stability and capability to provide rigid gel having high mechanical strength. In this study, a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-hexamine-hydroquinonegel is used for the development of polymer gel system. The experimental investigation demonstrates that the gelation time varies with polymer and crosslinker concentration and the temperature. The mathematical model is developed with the help of gelation kinetics of polymer gel and using Arrhenius equation, which relates the gelation time with polymer, crosslinker concentrations, and temperature. The developed model is solved with the help of multivariate regression method. It is observed in this study that the theoretical values of gelation time have good agreement with the experimental values. 1. Introduction The reservoir heterogeneity, permeability variations, and presence of fractures and fracture network in the reservoir are the main hurdles of the water flooding operations used to enhance the oil recovery from matured oil fields. Normally during water flooding, water sweeps through more permeable sections of the reservoir leaving back oil in low permeability channels leading to low oil recovery and early water breakthrough. This excessive water production from the producers leads to rise in handling and disposal costs and reduces the economic life of the well. The polymer gels block or reduce the permeability in high permeability channels and divert the injected water through the low permeability sections, which were not flooded or swept earlier, leading to improvement in oil recovery. This technique is known as profile modification or permeability modification technique and the proper application of this technique is essential for the success of water flooding projects in the oil fields [1–3]. Basically two types of polymers have been used for profile modification jobs. These are polyacrylamides with different degrees of hydrolysis and polysaccharide such as xanthan biopolymer. These are cross linked with inorganic and organic crosslinkers to produce a three-dimensional polymer structure of the gel [4–7]. The inorganic gel system based on the crosslinking of the carboxylate groups on the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide chain (PHPA) with a trivalent cation like Cr (III). This crosslinking is believed to rely on coordination covalent bonding. It
R. Jain, C. S. McCool, D. W. Green, G. P. Willhite, and M. J. Michnick, “Reaction kinetics of the uptake of chromium (III) acetate by polyacrylamide,” Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 247–255, 2004.
C. A. Grattoni, H. H. Al-Sharji, C. Yang, A. H. Muggeridge, and R. W. Zimmerman, “Rheology and permeability of crosslinked polyacrylamide gel,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 240, no. 2, pp. 601–607, 2001.
A. Stavland and H. C. Jonsbraten, “New insight into aluminum citrate/polyacrylamide gels for fluid control,” in Proceedings of the SPE/DOE 10th Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Paper SPE/DOE 35381, pp. 347–356, Tulsa, Okla, USA, April 1996.
S. L. Bryant, G. P. Borghi, M. Bartosek, and T. P. Lockhart, “Experimental investigation on the injectivity of phenol-formaldehyde/polymer gelants,” in Proceedings of the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Paper SPE 37244, pp. 335–343, Houston, Tex, USA, February 1997.
H. Jia, W. F. Pu, J. Z. Zhao, and R. Liao, “Experimental investigation of the novel phenol-formaldehyde cross-linking HPAM gel system: based on the secondary cross-linking method of organic cross-linkers and its gelation performance study after flowing through porous media,” Energy and Fuels, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 727–736, 2011.
H. Jia, W. F. Pu, J. Z. Zhao, and F. Y. Jin, “Research on the gelation performance of low toxic PEI cross-linking PHPAM gel systems as water shutoff agents in low temperature reservoirs,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 49, no. 20, pp. 9618–9624, 2010.
H. T. Dovan, R. D. Hutchins, and B. B. Sandiford, “Delaying gelation of aqueous polymers at elevated temperatures using novel organic crosslinkers,” in Proceedings of the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Paper SPE 37246, pp. 361–371, Houston, Tex, USA, February 1997.
R. D. Hutchins, H. T. Dovan, and B. B. Sandiford, “Field applications of high temperature organic gels for water control,” in Proceedings of the 10th Symposium of Improved Oil Recovery, Paper SPE/DOE 35444, Tulsa, Okla, USA, April 1996.
L. Eoff, D. Dalrymple, and D. Everett, “Global field results of a polymeric gel system in conformance applications,” in Proceedings of SPE Russian Oil and Gas Technical Conference and Exhibition, Paper SPE 101822, pp. 280–285, Moscow, Russia, October 2006.
J. Vasquez, E. D. Dalrymple, L. Eoff, B. R. Reddy, and F. Civan, “Development and evaluation of high-temperature conformance polymer systems,” in Proceedings of the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Paper SPE 93156, Houston, Tex, USA, February 2005.
G. A. Al-Muntasheri, H. A. Nasr-El-Din, and I. A. Hussein, “A rheological investigation of a high temperature organic gel used for water shut-off treatments,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, vol. 59, no. 1-2, pp. 73–83, 2007.
G. A. Al-Muntasheri, “A study of polyacrylamide-based gels crosslinked with polyethyleneimine,” in Proceedings of the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Paper SPE 105925, Houston, Tex, USA, February 2007.
S. D. Jordan, D. W. Green, E. R. Terry, and G. P. Willhite, “The effect of temperature on gelation time for polyacrylamide/chromium (III) systems,” Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 463–471, 1982.
G. A. Al-Muntasheri, H. A. Nasr-El-Din, and P. L. J. Zitha, “Gelation kinetic and performance evaluation of an organically crosslinked gel at high temperature and pressure,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Oil Conference and Exhibition, Paper SPE 104071, September 2006, Cancun, Mexico.
M. Simjoo, M. Vafaie Sefti, A. Dadvand Koohi, R. Hasheminasab, and V. Sajadian, “Polyacrylamide gel polymer as water shut-off system: preparation and investigation of physical and chemical properties in one of the iranian oil reservoirs conditions,” Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 99–108, 2007.
F. Civan, J. Vasquez, D. Dalrymple, L. Eoff, and B. R. Reddy, “Laboratory and theoretical evaluation of gelation time data for water-based polymer systems for water control,” Petroleum Science and Technology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 353–371, 2007.