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Some New Records of Stinkhorns (Phallaceae) from Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

DOI: 10.1155/2014/490847

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This research paper represents for the first time an updated list of stinkhorn family, Phallaceae, in Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Jorhat, Assam, India. There are seven species of stinkhorns naturally present in the study area. A description of all the species is given along with images of fruiting bodies of the fungi and their microstructures; information on the ecology and general distribution and data on the literature have been documented. The seven species of stinkhorns were found in and around area of the sanctuary which include Phallus indusiatus, Phallus duplicatus, Phallus cinnabarinus, Phallus merulinus, Phallus atrovolvatus, Mutinus bambusinus, and Clathrus delicatus. 1. Introduction Fungi are some of the most important organisms in the world, because of their vital role in ecosystem function and influence on humans and human-related activities as discussed by Mueller and Bills [1]. Fungi are not only beautiful but play a significant role in the daily life of human beings besides their utilization in industry, agriculture, and medicine as discussed by Cowan [2] and Chang and Miles [3]. Moreover, fungi help in bioremediation, in recycling nutrients, and in decomposing the dead organic matter in soil and litter, as biofertilizers and in many other ways (Gadd [4]). It is necessary to estimate the taxonomic diversity for fungi that will enable fungi to be included in considerations of biodiversity conservation and land-use planning and management as discussed by Mueller and Schmit [5]. The number of fungi recorded in India exceeds 27,000 species, the largest biotic community after insects (Sarbhoy et al. [6]). Recent estimates of the global species numbers of fungi suggest that the much-used figure of 1.5 million is low, and figures up to 5.1 million have been proposed in the last few years (Hawksworth [7]). The literature survey revealed that only a fraction of total fungal wealth has been subjected to scientific scrutiny till date. The first list on Indian fungi was published by Butler and Bisby in 1931 [8] and then later on revised by Vasudeva in 1960 [8]. In North East India as a part of Indo Burma biodiversity hotspot [9] of the world, few number of wild edible macrofungi have been reported by Sarma et al. [10], Tanti et al. [11], Khaund and Joshi, [12], Baruah et al. [13], and N. I. Sing and S. M. Sing [14]. The stinkhorns are easily identified due to their fetid smelling, sticky spore masses, or gleba, borne on the end of a stalk called the receptaculum or cap. The characteristic fruiting-body structure, a single, unbranched

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