All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Multispark Discharge in Water as a Method of Environmental Sustainability Problems Solution

DOI: 10.1155/2013/429189

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Multispark discharge excited in water is described, and its useful physical and chemical properties are discussed in the light of some environmental issues. Discharge of such a type generates hot and dense plasmoids producing intense biologically active UV radiation and chemically active radicals, atoms, and molecules. Simultaneously, discharge creates strong hydrodynamic perturbations and cavitation bubbles. Particular attention is given to factors influencing on water purity with special reference to discharge application for effective sterilization of water and its cleaning of harmful chemicals. The gas discharges of this type show considerable promise as a means for solving some actual plasma-chemical problems. The above-mentioned discharge properties have been demonstrated in a series of laboratory experiments, which proved the efficiency of disinfection of potable and waste water, water cleaning of pesticide (herbicide) contaminations, and conversion (recovery) of natural methane. 1. Introduction High voltage electric discharge in water [1, 2] has been considered as a potential method of water treatment to kill microorganisms and to clean it of harmful contaminations negating the use of chemicals that leads to by-products which may additionally compromise human health [3–5]. Factors favoring their use include the generation of UV radiation, acoustic, shock waves, chemically active substances, cavitation processes, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. There are also possible synergetic effects following physical and chemical reactions. Among the different means of in-liquid electric discharge, a novel method involves multielectrode (multispark) slipping (gliding) discharges (SSDs) [6] which may have some advantages over the two-electrode systems generally used at present [1, 7]. The present work describes the construction of a multispark discharger and discusses results of experimental investigation of SSD-based methods of water disinfection and their application in plasma-chemical technology for solving some of environmental problems, such as conversion (recovery) of methane (as well as other natural hydrocarbons), and water cleaning of pesticide (herbicide) contamination. 2. Treatment System The apparatus used to treat liquids is shown schematically in Figures 1 and 2. The basic components were a chamber filled with water, a multielectrode system for exciting of slipping surface discharge, and high voltage power supply (Figure 1). The multielectrode discharge system (Figure 2) was similar in design to that previously described in [6, 8, 9]. The discharger

References

[1]  V. L. Goryachev, F. G. Rutberg, and V. N. Fedyukovich, “Electric-discharge method of water treatment. Status of the problem and prospects,” Applied Energy, vol. 36, pp. 35–49, 1998.
[2]  L. A. Yutkin, Electrohydroulic Effect and Industrial Application, Mashinostroenie, Leningrad, Russia, 1986.
[3]  J. Sketchell, H.-G. Peterson, and N. Christofi, “Disinfection by-product formation after biologically assisted GAC treatment of water supplies with different bromide and DOC content,” Water Research, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 2635–2642, 1995.
[4]  F. X. R. Van Leeuwen, “Safe drinking water: the toxicologist's approach,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 38, pp. 851–858, 2000.
[5]  U. Von Gunten, A. Driedger, H. Gallard, and E. Salhi, “By-products formation during drinking water disinfection: a tool to assess disinfection efficiency?” Water Research, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 2095–2099, 2001.
[6]  PCT, Treatment of Liquid International Patent Application no PCT/GB99/00755, 1999.
[7]  L. A. Kul'skii, O. S. Savchuk, and E. Yu. Deinega, Influence of Electron Field on Process of Water Sterilization, Nauk. Dumka, Kiev, Ukraine, 1980.
[8]  E. M. Barkhudarov, I. A. Kossyi, M. I. Taktakishvili, N. Christofi, and V. Zadiraka Yu, “Multispark generation of plasma in liquids and its utilization in waste water treatment,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Gas Discharges and their Applications, vol. 2, pp. 680–683, Strathclyde University, Glasgow, UK, 2000.
[9]  A. M. Anpilov, E. M. Barkhudarov, Y. B. Bark et al., “Electric discharge in water as a source of UV radiation, ozone and hydrogen peroxide,” Journal of Physics D, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 993–999, 2001.
[10]  S. M. Korobeinikov and E. V. Yashin, “Bubble model for breakdown in water at pulsed voltage. Electric discharge in liquid and its industrial application, part 1, Nikolaev, Russia,” 1988.
[11]  V. L. Goryachev, A. A. Ufimtsev, and A. M. Khodakovskii, “Mechanism of electrode erosion in pulsed discharges in water with a pulse energy of~1?J,” Technical Physics Letters, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 386–387, 1997.
[12]  A. M. Anpilov, E. M. Barkhudarov, N. K. Berezhetskaya et al., “Source of a dense metal plasma,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 141–148, 1998.
[13]  Y. B. Bark, E. M. Barkhudarov, Y. N. Kozlov et al., “Slipping surface discharge as a source of hard UV radiation,” Journal of Physics D, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 859–863, 2000.
[14]  K. H. Becker, K. H. Schoenbach, and J. G. Eden, “Microplasmas and applications,” Journal of Physics D, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. R55–R70, 2006.
[15]  A. M. Anpilov, N. K. Berezhetskaya, V. A. Kop'ev et al., “Explosive-emissive source of a carbon plasma,” Plasma Physics Reports, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 422–428, 1997.
[16]  N. K. Berezhetskaya, V. A. Kop'ev, I. A. Kossyi, I. I. Kutuzov, and B. M. Tiit, “Explosive emission phenomena on a metal-hot plasma interface,” Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoi Fizikiv, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 179–184, 1991 (Russian).
[17]  E. M. Barkhudarov, I. A. Kossyi, and M. I. Taktakishvili, “Distributed plasma generation in liquids,” in Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Gas Discharges and their Applications, vol. 2, pp. 340–342, Strathclyde University, Glasgow, UK, 2000.
[18]  C. G. Hatchard and C. A. Parker, “A new sensitive chemical actinometer. II. Potassium ferrioxalate as a standard chemical actinometer,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A, vol. 235, no. 1203, pp. 518–536, 1956.
[19]  V. V. Lunin, M. P. Popovich, and S. N. Tkachenko, Physical Chemistry of Ozone, Moscow State University Press, Moscow, Russia, 1998.
[20]  J. H. Baxeudale, “The flash photolysis of water and aqueous solutions,” Radiation Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 312–326, 1962.
[21]  B. N. Frog and A. P. Levchenko, Preparation of Water, Moscow State University Press, Moscow, Russia, 1996.
[22]  A. M. Anpilov, E. M. Barkhudarov, N. Christofi et al., “Pulsed high voltage electric discharge disinfection of microbially contaminated liquids,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 90–94, 2002.
[23]  A. M. Anpilov, E. M. Barkhudarov, N. Christofi et al., “The effectiveness of a multi-spark electric discharge system in the destruction of microorganisms in domestic and industrial wastewaters,” Journal of Water and Health, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 267–277, 2004.
[24]  A. I. Babaritskii, S. A. Demkin, V. K. Zhivotov, et al., Plasmachemistry-91 (INKhS AN SSSRv), vol. 2, pp. 286–303, 1991.
[25]  S. I. Gritsinin, P. A. Gushchin, A. M. Davydov, E. V. Ivanov, I. A. Kossyi, and M. A. Misakyan, “Conversion of methane in a coaxial microwave torch,” Plasma Physics Reports, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 933–940, 2009.
[26]  A. M. Anpilov, E. M. Barkhudarov, N. K. Berezhetskaya et al., “Methane conversion in a multielectrode slipping surface discharge in the two-phase water-gas medium,” Technical Physics, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 1588–1592, 2011.
[27]  N. Parkansky, O. Goldstein, B. Alterkop et al., “Features of micro and nano-particles produced by pulsed arc submerged in ethanol,” Powder Technology, vol. 161, no. 3, pp. 215–219, 2006.
[28]  N. Sano, “Low-cost synthesis of single-walled carbon nanohorns using the arc in water method with gas injection,” Journal of Physics D, vol. 37, no. 8, p. L17, 2004.
[29]  V. M. Shmelev, N. V. Evtyukhin, Y. N. Kozlov, and E. M. Barkhudarov, “Action of pulsed surface discharge on organic contaminants in water,” Khimicheskaya Fizika, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 77–85, 2004 (Russian).

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus