Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an important source of edible oil which was originated in Near-East region. In this study, two cDNA libraries were constructed from young olive leaves and immature olive fruits for generation of ESTs to discover the novel genes and search the function of unknown genes of olive. The randomly selected 3840 colonies were sequenced for EST collection from both libraries. Readable 2228 sequences for olive leaf and 1506 sequences for olive fruit were assembled into 205 and 69 contigs, respectively, whereas 2478 were singletons. Putative functions of all 2752 differentially expressed unique sequences were designated by gene homology based on BLAST and annotated using BLAST2GO. While 1339 ESTs show no homology to the database, 2024 ESTs have homology (under 80%) with hypothetical proteins, putative proteins, expressed proteins, and unknown proteins in NCBI-GenBank. 635 EST's unique genes sequence have been identified by over 80% homology to known function in other species which were not previously described in Olea family. Only 3.1% of total EST's was shown similarity with olive database existing in NCBI. This generated EST's data and consensus sequences were submitted to NCBI as valuable source for functional genome studies of olive. 1. Introduction Oleacea family comprises 600 species in 24 genus and disseminates all around the world. The olive Olea europaea L, which is one of the first domesticated agricultural tree crops in the family Oleaceae, is cultivated mainly for both edible oil and table olives. The domestication of Olea europaea is supposed to be realized some 5700–5500 years ago in the Near-East . Therefore, Anatolia is one of the most important areas of the olive origin of which over 86 varieties of Europea species are present in Turkey (Anatolia). It is known that olive is native to coastal areas of the Mediterranean region such as Spain, Italy, Greece, France, Turkey, Algeria, and Morocco. Olive is the most extensively cultivated fruit crop with its orchards cover about 9.8？mil. ha. in the world. According to the statistics published by FAO, Turkey is the fourth largest producer of olive oil in the world, after Spain, Italy, and Greece. Turkey is the first producer of black table olive in the world and Gemlik cuv. represents 80% of black table olives production in Turkey. Because of economical importance of Gemlik, a lot of research centers in Turkey continue their molecular and classical breeding program for this cultivar. Most of the genetic studies in cultivated plants are focused on the understanding of genetic
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