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Effect of Additives and Process Variables on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Macauba Kernel Oil (Acrocomia aculeata)

DOI: 10.1155/2013/438270

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Abstract:

This work investigates the production of free fatty acids (FFAs) from the enzymatic hydrolysis of macauba kernel oil. Experiments evaluate the effect of different enzymes and the addition of salts, surfactants, and solvents to the reaction medium, as well as the effect of process variables. Results showed that FFA yields obtained for use of Lipozyme RM IM were higher than those obtained from Lipozyme TL IM and Lipozyme 435. The addition of salts and surfactants did not promote increased production of FFAs, while adding n-hexane and heptane to the reaction medium led to an increased reaction rate. It can be observed for the results that the temperature, water?: ?oil mass ratio, and enzyme percentage had positive effects on the FFA yield in the range of 35°C to 55°C, 1?: ?20 to 1?: ?2, and 1 to 15%, respectively, and that, from these limits, increases in these variables did not cause significant increase in FFA yields. The addition of buffer promoted an increase in yield FFAs, as well as the pH of the buffer, and it was reported that an agitation of 400?rpm resulted in the highest yields in the investigated range. 1. Introduction Currently, the conversion of fats and oils into products with high added value, such as free fatty acids (FFAs) and their derivatives, has been of great commercial interest; these compounds act as essential components in the oleochemical industry [1]. A significant number of products require fatty acids to manufacture in the industrial sector, spurring research into the resolution of racemic mixtures [2], the synthesis of emulsifiers [3, 4], the transformation of lipids in order to produce structured lipids with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids [5, 6], and obtaining bioaromas [7]. Recently, FFAs have been used for biodiesel production [8]. Different oilseeds have been the focus of interest in the agronomic and industrial sectors. Industrial conflict between food and nonfood sources has arisen due to the limited number of options between cultures. One solution would be the introduction of new oilseeds aimed at achieving strategic sectors [9]. The Acrocomia aculeata is considered one of the most obvious species of palm in Brazil [10, 11]. This species has oleaginous fruits in clusters that may weigh approximately 25?kg in natural conditions, has recently been considered as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production [12], and can produce 10 times more oil per hectare (ha) than soybean [13]; projections based on suitable agronomic conditions predict that a plantation can produce 16000 to 25000?kg?ha?1 of fruit and

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