All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

DOI: 10.1155/2013/612035

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health. 1. Introduction Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a 45?kDa glycoprotein which can catalyze the hydrolysis of various organophosphates and nerve agents [1, 2] and also metabolize some drugs and prodrugs by its lactonase activity [3]. This enzyme which is located on high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles protects low density lipoprotein (LDL) phospholipids against oxidation [4]. Decreased PON1 activity has been addressed in several diseases such as coronary artery diseases (CAD) [5], type I diabetes [6], obesity [7], and renal failure [8]. It is evident that PON1 activity is influenced by a variety of agents like environmental, pharmacological, and lifestyle factors as well as age and sex [2, 5, 9–11]. Dietary fats have been suggested as an important relevant factor [12, 13]. Studies have presented that dietary fatty acids may affect PON1 activity [14]. Polyenoic fatty acids have shown considerable inhibitory effect on PON1 activity [15], while monoenoic acids (especially oleic acid) protect PON1 from oxidative inactivation [16]. It has been also indicated that replacement of dietary saturated fats with trans fats in healthy men and women leads to a small reduction in the serum PON1 activity [17]. Serum PON1 is almost exclusively found in association with HDL particles. The lipid


[1]  D. I. Draganov and B. N. La Du, “Pharmacogenetics of paraoxonases: a brief review,” Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, vol. 369, no. 1, pp. 78–88, 2004.
[2]  A. Tward, Y. R. Xia, X. P. Wang et al., “Decreased atherosclerotic lesion formation in human serum paraoxonase transgenic mice,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 484–490, 2002.
[3]  L. G. Costa, T. B. Cole, G. P. Jarvik, and C. E. Furlong, “Functional genomics of the paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphisms: effects on pesticide sensitivity, cardiovascular disease, and drug metabolism,” Annual Review of Medicine, vol. 54, pp. 371–392, 2003.
[4]  P. J. Barter, S. Nicholls, K. Rye, G. M. Anantharamaiah, M. Navab, and A. M. Fogelman, “Antiinflammatory properties of HDL,” Circulation Research, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 764–772, 2004.
[5]  O. Fridman, A. G. Fuchs, R. Porcile, A. V. Morales, and L. O. Gariglio, “Paraoxonase: its multiple functions and pharmacological regulation,” Archivos de Cardiologia de Mexico, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 251–260, 2011.
[6]  J. Valabhji, A. J. McColl, M. Schachter, S. Dhanjil, W. Richmond, and R. S. Elkeles, “High-density lipoprotein composition and paraoxonase activity in type 1 diabetes,” Clinical Science, vol. 101, no. 6, pp. 659–670, 2001.
[7]  G. Ferretti, T. Bacchetti, S. Masciangelo, and V. Bicchiega, “HDL-paraoxonase and membrane lipid peroxidation: a comparison between healthy and obese subjects,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1079–1084, 2010.
[8]  S. A. Saeed, M. Elsharkawy, K. Elsaeed, and O. Fooda, “Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity as a risk factor for atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure patients,” Hemodialysis International, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 471–479, 2008.
[9]  L. G. Costa, A. Vitalone, T. B. Cole, and C. E. Furlong, “Modulation of paraoxonase (PON1) activity,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 541–550, 2005.
[10]  W. H. F. Sutherland, R. J. Walker, S. A. de Long, A. M. van Rij, V. Phillips, and H. L. Walker, “Reduced postprandial serum paraoxonase activity after a meal rich in used cooking fat,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1340–1347, 1999.
[11]  N. Ferrè, J. Camps, J. Fernández-Ballart et al., “Regulation of serum paraoxonase activity by genetic, nutritional, and lifestyle factors in the general population,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 1491–1497, 2003.
[12]  L. Calabresi, B. Villa, M. Canavesi et al., “An ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate increases plasma high-density lipoprotein 2 cholesterol and paraoxonase levels in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia,” Metabolism, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 153–158, 2004.
[13]  G. Ferretti and T. Bacchetti, “Effect of dietary lipids on paraoxonase-1 activity and gene expression,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 88–94, 2012.
[14]  B. J. Kudchodkar, A. G. Lacko, L. Dory, and T. V. Fungwe, “Dietary fat modulates serum paraoxonase 1 activity in rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 130, no. 10, pp. 2427–2433, 2000.
[15]  S. D. Nguyen, N. D. Hung, P. Cheon-Ho, K. M. Ree, and S. Dai-Eun, “Oxidative inactivation of lactonase activity of purified human paraoxonase 1 (PON1),” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1790, no. 3, pp. 155–160, 2009.
[16]  S. D. Nguyen and D. E. Sok, “Beneficial effect of oleoylated lipids on paraoxonase 1: protection against oxidative inactivation and stabilization,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 375, no. 2, pp. 275–285, 2003.
[17]  N. M. de Roos, E. G. Schouten, L. M. Scheek, A. van Tol, and M. B. Katan, “Replacement of dietary saturated fat with trans fat reduces serum paraoxonase activity in healthy men and women,” Metabolism, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 1534–1537, 2002.
[18]  A. E. Razavi, M. Pourfarzam, M. Ani, and G. A. Naderi, “The associations between high-density lipoprotein mean particle size and its fatty acid composition,” Biomarkers in Medicine, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 235–245, 2013.
[19]  P. Risé, S. Eligini, S. Ghezzi, S. Colli, and C. Galli, “Fatty acid composition of plasma, blood cells and whole blood: relevance for the assessment of the fatty acid status in humans,” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 363–369, 2007.
[20]  A. E. Razavi, M. Ani, M. Pourfarzam, and G. A. Naderi, “Associations between high density lipoprotein mean particle size and serum paraoxonase-1 activity,” Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1020–1026, 2012.
[21]  J. Be?towski, G. Wójcicka, and A. Jamroz, “Leptin decreases plasma paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and induces oxidative stress: the possible novel mechanism for proatherogenic effect of chronic hyperleptinemia,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 170, no. 1, pp. 21–29, 2003.
[22]  M. A. K. Markwell, S. M. Haas, L. L. Bieber, and N. E. Tolbert, “A modification of the Lowry procedure to simplify protein determination in membrane and lipoprotein samples,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 206–210, 1978.
[23]  J. Folch, M. Lees, and G. H. S. Stanley, “A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 226, no. 1, pp. 497–509, 1957.
[24]  W. R. Morrison and L. M. Smith, “Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and dimethylacetals from lipids with boron fluoride—methanols,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 5, pp. 600–608, 1964.
[25]  S. D. Nguyen and D. E. Sok, “Beneficial effect of oleoylated lipids on paraoxonase 1: protection against oxidative inactivation and stabilization,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 375, no. 2, pp. 275–285, 2003.
[26]  N. M. de Roos, E. G. Schouten, L. M. Scheek, A. van Tol, and M. B. Katan, “Replacement of dietary saturated fat with trans fat reduces serum paraoxonase activity in healthy men and women,” Metabolism, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 1534–1537, 2002.
[27]  M. Tomás, M. Sentí, R. Elosua et al., “Interaction between the Gln-Arg 192 variants of the paraoxonase gene and oleic acid intake as a determinant of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and paraoxonase activity,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 432, no. 2-3, pp. 121–128, 2001.
[28]  A. J. Wallace, W. H. F. Sutherland, J. I. Mann, and S. M. Williams, “The effect of meals rich in thermally stressed olive and safflower oils on postprandial serum paraoxonase activity in patients with diabetes,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 951–958, 2001.


comments powered by Disqus