The objectives were to determine the effect of macronutrient modification on vitamin D status and if change in 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentration influences components of metabolic syndrome in obese African American girls. Methods. Five-week intervention using reduced CHO (43% carbohydrate; 27% fat: SPEC) versus standard CHO (55% carbohydrate; 40% fat: STAN) eucaloric diet. Subjects were 28 obese African American females, aged 9–14 years. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and meal test were performed at baseline and five weeks. Results. Approximately 30% of girls had metabolic syndrome. Serum 25OHD increased in both groups at five weeks [STAN: 20.3 ± 1.1 to 22.4 ± 1.1 ( ) versus SPEC: to ( )]. The STAN group, increased 25OHD concentration over five weeks ( ), which was positively related to triglycerides ( ) and inversely associated with total cholesterol ( ) and LDL ( ). The SPEC group, had increase in 25OHD ( ), which was positively related to fasting insulin ( ) and insulin sensitivity while inversely associated with fasting glucose ( ). The contribution of vitamin D status to metabolic syndrome parameters differs according to macronutrient intake. Improvement in 25OHD may improve fasting glucose, insulin sensitivity, and LDL; however, macronutrient intake warrants consideration. 1. Introduction The steady rise in prevalence of pediatric obesity over the past three decades has been accompanied by accumulation of risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in childhood and adolescence. The occurrence of hypovitaminosis D (expressed as levels <20？ng/mL of circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD)) has been increasingly documented in the same population [1, 2]. Moreover, children/adolescents with hypovitaminosis D have been reported to experience greater instances of hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) [1, 3, 4]. Further, it has been proposed that elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), consequential to chronic low vitamin D level, is mechanistically involved in the adverse perturbations of risk factors underlying MetSyn . Given the emerging identification of vitamin D as an integral player in numerous metabolic pathways, it stands to reason that vitamin D status in the pediatric populace may play a role in the prevalence of metabolic disease risk factors [6, 7]. The relationship between 25OHD status and metabolic health is not equally distributed across groups. In particular, the relationship is more apparent among African American (AA) females, particularly those who are overweight/obese
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