All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Jatropha Oil Derived Sophorolipids: Production and Characterization as Laundry Detergent Additive

DOI: 10.1155/2013/169797

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25?g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7?mN/m to 33.5?mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5?mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage. 1. Introduction In terms of production volume, surfactants belong to the most important classes of industrial chemicals with a current total world production exceeding 13 million tonnes per year [1]. About half that volume is used in household and laundry detergents and the other half in a wide variety of industrial sectors, particularly the chemical, textile, food, and paper industry, cosmetics, personal, and health care, agriculture, and so forth. The majority of the currently used surfactants are petroleum-based and are produced by chemical means. These compounds are often toxic to the environment, and their use may lead to significant ecological problems, particularly in washing applications as these surfactants inevitably end up in the environment after use [2]. The ecotoxicity, bioaccumulation, and biodegradability of surfactants are therefore issues of increasing concern. Phosphates are being recognized as one of the essential nutrients contributing to the eutrophication and detergents are one of the many sources of phosphate discharged to the environment [3]. Therefore attempts should be made to reduce the detergent load in to the environment. In this scenario the biosurfactants are promising alternatives to synthetic surfactants as

References

[1]  I. N. A. van Bogaert, J. Zhang, and W. Soetaert, “Microbial synthesis of sophorolipids,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 821–833, 2011.
[2]  I. N. A. van Bogaert, K. Saerens, C. de Muynck, D. Develter, W. Soetaert, and E. J. Vandamme, “Microbial production and application of sophorolipids,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 23–34, 2007.
[3]  P. A. Gilbert and A. L. DeJong, “The use of phosphate in detergents and possible replacements for phosphate,” Ciba Foundation Symposium, vol. 57, pp. 253–268, 1977.
[4]  K. S. Bisht, R. A. Gross, and D. L. Kaplan, “Enzyme-mediated regioselective acylations of sophorolipids,” The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 780–789, 1999.
[5]  R. S. Makkar and S. S. Cameotra, “An update on the use of unconventional substrates for biosurfactant production and their new applications,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 428–434, 2002.
[6]  M. Deshpande and L. Daniels, “Evaluation of sophorolipid biosurfactant production by Candida bombicola using animal fat,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 143–150, 1995.
[7]  H. J. Daniel, M. Reuss, and C. Syldatk, “Production of sophorolipids in high concentration from deproteinized whey and rapeseed oil in a two stage fed batch process using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1153–1156, 1998.
[8]  R. D. Ashby, A. Nu?ez, D. K. Y. Solaiman, and T. A. Foglia, “Sophorolipid biosynthesis from a biodiesel co-product stream,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 625–630, 2005.
[9]  S. J. J. Fleurackers, “On the use of waste frying oil in the synthesis of sophorolipids,” European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 5–12, 2006.
[10]  V. Shah, M. Jurjevic, and D. Badia, “Utilization of restaurant waste oil as a precursor for sophorolipid production,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 512–515, 2007.
[11]  A. Daverey and K. Pakshirajan, “Production, characterization, and properties of sophorolipids from the yeast Candida bombicola using a low-cost fermentative medium,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 158, no. 3, pp. 663–674, 2009.
[12]  A. Joshi, P. Singhal, and R. K. Bachheti, “Physiochemical characterization of seed oil of Jatropha curcas L. Collected from Dehradun (Uttarakhand) India,” International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, vol. 2, pp. 123–127, 2011.
[13]  S. D. Wadekar, S. B. Kale, A. M. Lali, D. N. Bhowmick, and A. P. Pratap, “Jatropha oil and karanja oil as carbon sources for production of sophorolipids,” European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, vol. 114, no. 17, pp. 823–832, 2012.
[14]  P. J. Hall, J. Haverkamp, C. G. van Kralingen, and M. Schmidt, “Laundry detergent composition containing synergistic combination of sophorose lipid and nonionic surfactant,” US Patent 5520839, 1996.
[15]  T. Futura, K. Igarashi, and Y. Hirata, “Low-foaming detergent compositions,” World Patent 03/002700, 2002.
[16]  S. Shah, Biotransformation: in synthesis of bioactive molecules, 19-HETE and 20-HETE, from arachidonic acid. [Ph.D. thesis], University of Pune, 2006.
[17]  D. G. Cooper and D. A. Paddock, “Production of a biosurfactant from Torulopsis bombicola,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 173–176, 1984.
[18]  A. Prabhune, S. R. Fox, and C. Ratledge, “Transformation of arachidonic acid to 19-hydroxy- and 20-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids using Candida bombicola,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1041–1044, 2002.
[19]  A. Brakemeier, S. Lang, D. Wullbrandt et al., “Novel sophorose lipids from microbial conversion of 2-alkanols,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1183–1188, 1995.
[20]  S. Shah and A. Prabhune, “Purification by silica gel chromatography using dialysis tubing and characterization of sophorolipids produced from Candida bombicola grown on glucose and arachidonic acid,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 267–272, 2007.
[21]  U. Rau, C. Manzke, and F. Wagner, “Influence of substrate supply on the production of sophorose lipids by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 149–154, 1996.
[22]  Y. Hu and L.-K. Ju, “Sophorolipid production from different lipid precursors observed with LC-MS,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 593–601, 2001.
[23]  M. C. Cirigliano and G. M. Carman, “Purification and characterization of liposan, a bioemulsifier from Candida lipolytica,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 846–850, 1985.
[24]  A. Daverey and K. Pakshirajan, “Sophorolipids from Candida bombicola using mixed hydrophilic substrates: production, purification and characterization,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 246–253, 2010.
[25]  C. A. Wilham, T. A. Mcguire, C. L. Mehltretter, and F. H. Otey, “Surfactants from fatty esters of polyalkoxylated polyol glycosides,” Journal of American Oil Chemist’s Society, vol. 50, pp. 155–158, 1973.
[26]  P. D. T. Huibers and D. O. Shah, “Evidence for synergism in nonionic surfactant mixtures: enhancement of solubilization in water-in-oil microemulsions,” Langmuir, vol. 13, no. 21, pp. 5762–5765, 1997.
[27]  http://www.youtube.com/watch?gl=US&v=MYnBNs2S7NE, 2012.
[28]  http://tb014.k12.sd.us/Chemistry/Stain%20Removal/Stain%20Removal%20Test%20Lab.pdf, 2012.
[29]  J. Chen, X. Song, H. Zhang, and Y. Qu, “Production, structure elucidation and anticancer properties of sophorolipid from Wickerhamiella domercqiae,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 501–506, 2006.
[30]  P. Mukherjee and K. J. Mysels, “Critical micelle concentration of aqueous surfactant systems,” NSRDS-NBS 36, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA, 1971.
[31]  S. M. Bhairi, Detergents: Guide to the Properties and Uses of Detergents in Biological Systems, Calbiochem-Novabiochem International, 1997.
[32]  A. Daverey and K. Pakshirajan, “Production of sophorolipids by the yeast Candida bombicola using simple and low cost fermentative media,” Food Research International, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 499–504, 2009.
[33]  A. Azim, V. Shah, G. F. Doncel, N. Peterson, W. Gao, and R. Gross, “Amino acid conjugated sophorolipids: a new family of biologically active functionalized glycolipids,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1523–1529, 2006.
[34]  W. Rybinski and A. Nordskog, “Chapter 2: laundry detergents,” in ULLMANN'S Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2007.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus