All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Managing the Selenium Content in Soils in Semiarid Environments through the Recycling of Organic Matter

DOI: 10.1155/2013/283468

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Around 30% of the world’s population suffers from either a lack of one or more essential micronutrients, or the overconsumption of these minerals, which causes toxicity. Selenium (Se) is a particularly important micronutrient component of the diet with a well-documented and wide-ranging role in maintaining health. However, this important micronutrient can be lacking because soil and crop management are focused on high yields to the detriment of the quality of crops required to ensure a healthy human diet. Currently around 15% of the global population has selenium deficiency. This paper focuses on Se availability in semiarid soils and how micronutrients can be effectively managed through the recycling of organic matter. Because many mineral reserves are being exploited unsustainably, we review the advantages of using organic by-products for the management of the biofortification of Se in crops. This type of practice is particularly useful in arid and semiarid environments because organic matter acts as a reservoir for Se, preventing bioaccumulation and leaching. There are also potential local economic benefits from using organic by-products, such as manures and sewage sludge. 1. Introduction At least 60% of the world’s population either lacks one or more essential mineral elements or consumes food containing high amounts of toxic mineral elements [1]. Mineral malnutrition is a widespread problem in both developing and developed countries. This situation is particularly serious for some micronutrients, such as Fe, Zn, I, Se, Ca, Mg, and Cu [2, 3]. In the specific case of Se, 15% of the world’s population is already Se deficient [2]. Gupta et al. [4] stated that, in addition to the lack of studies on the ability of plants to uptake minerals, there are insufficient analyses of soil that determine the total nutrient contents. Similarly, there are no studies of the impact of different soil management practices on the concentration and distribution of micronutrient concentrations in the different edible parts of crop plants. The micronutrient status of a plant can be measured from the leaves because leaves contain the highest amounts of micronutrients. Micronutrient deficiency is easily detected in younger leaves, whereas toxicity can be detected in later stages of development in older leaves [5]. Several factors control the lack of Se content in plants including the genetic variety, soil management, soil type, and climate. The lack of micronutrient content in plants is common in humid temperate and tropical regions due to intense soil leaching caused by the

References

[1]  P. J. White and M. R. Broadley, “Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets—iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium and iodine,” New Phytologist, vol. 182, no. 1, pp. 49–84, 2009.
[2]  J. L. Stroud, M. R. Broadley, I. Foot et al., “Soil factors affecting selenium concentration in wheat grain and the fate and speciation of Se fertilisers applied to soil,” Plant and Soil, vol. 332, no. 1, pp. 19–30, 2010.
[3]  D. Tennant, G. Scholz, J. Dixon, and B. Purdie, “Physical and chemical characteristics of duplex soils and their distribution in the south-west of Western Australia,” Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 827–843, 1992.
[4]  U. C. Gupta, W. Kening, and L. Siyuan, “Micronutrients in soils, crops and livestock,” Earth Science Frontiers, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 110–125, 2008.
[5]  G. Gissel-Nielsen, “Effects of selenium supplementation of field crops,” in Environmental Chemistry of Selenium, W. T. Frankenberger and R. A. Engberg, Eds., pp. 99–112, Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1998.
[6]  P. Ekholm, H. Reinivuo, P. Mattila et al., “Changes in the mineral and trace element contents of cereals, fruits and vegetables in Finland,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 487–495, 2007.
[7]  S. Mythili, K. Natarajan, and R. Kalpana, “Zinc nutrition in rice: a review,” Agricultural Reviews, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 136–141, 2003.
[8]  G. Ba?uelos and Z. Q. Lin, Development and Uses of Biofortified Agricultural Products, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2009.
[9]  B. H. Robinson, G. Ba?uelos, H. M. Conesa, M. W. H. Evangelou, and R. Schulin, “The phytomanagement of trace elements in soil,” Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 240–266, 2009.
[10]  S. Hueso, T. Hernández, and C. García, “Resistance and resilience of the soil microbial biomass to severe drought in semiarid soils: the importance of organic amendments,” Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 27–36, 2011.
[11]  P. M. Haygarth, “Global importance and global cycling of selenium,” in Selenium in the Environment, W. T. Frankenberger and B. Sally, Eds., pp. 1–28, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
[12]  M. P. Rayman, “The argument for increasing selenium intake,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 203–215, 2002.
[13]  M. F. Fenech, “Dietary reference values of individual micronutrients and nutriomes for genome damage prevention: current status and a road map to the future,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 1438S–1454S, 2010.
[14]  G. W. Ford, J. J. Martin, P. Rengasamy, S. C. Boucher, and A. Ellington, “Soil sodicity in Victoria,” Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 869–909, 1993.
[15]  M. R. Broadley, P. J. White, R. J. Bryson et al., “Biofortification of UK food crops with selenium,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 169–181, 2006.
[16]  F. Fordice, “Selenium deficiency and toxicity in the environment,” in Essentials of Medical Geology, O. Selinus, B. Alloway, J. Centeno et al., Eds., pp. 373–415, Elsevier, London, UK, 2005.
[17]  D. V. Frost, “What do losses in selenium and arsenic bioavailability signify for health?” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 28, pp. 455–466, 1983.
[18]  National Academy of Sciences, Recommended Dietary Allowances, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA, 10th edition, 1989.
[19]  J. Lee, D. G. Masters, C. L. White, N. D. Grace, and G. J. Judson, “Current issues in trace element nutrition of grazing livestock in Australia and New Zealand,” Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1341–1364, 1999.
[20]  A. D. Lemly, “Guidelines for evaluating selenium data from aquatic monitoring and assessment studies,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 83–100, 1993.
[21]  O. A. Levander and R. F. Burk, “Uptake of human dietary standards for selenium,” in Selenium Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health, D. L. Hatfield, M. J. Berry, and V. N. Gladyshev, Eds., pp. 399–410, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2006.
[22]  G. Lyons, “Selenium in cereals: improving the efficiency of agronomic biofortification in the UK,” Plant and Soil, vol. 332, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 2010.
[23]  J. Wu, C. Salisbury, R. Graham, G. Lyons, and M. Fenech, “Increased consumption of wheat biofortified with selenium does not modify biomarkers of cancer risk, oxidative stress, or immune function in healthy Australian males,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 489–501, 2009.
[24]  K. Schwarz and C. M. Foltz, “Selenium as an integral part of factor 3 against dietary necrotic liver degeneration,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 79, no. 12, pp. 3292–3293, 1957.
[25]  K. Kaur, R. K. Jalota, and D. J. Midmore, “Impact of tree clearing on soil attributes for a pastoral property in central Queensland, Australia,” Soil Science, vol. 172, no. 7, pp. 516–533, 2007.
[26]  K. M. Havstad, J. E. Herrick, and W. H. Schlesinger, “Desert rangelends, degradation and nutrients,” in Rangeland Desertification, O. Arnalds and S. Archer, Eds., pp. 77–87, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2000.
[27]  E. A. Pilon-Smits, C. F. Quinn, W. Tapken, M. Malagoli, and M. Schiavon, “Physiological functions of beneficial elements,” Current Opinion in Plant Biology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 267–274, 2009.
[28]  C. D. Thomson, “Assessment of requirements for selenium and adequacy of selenium status: a review,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 391–402, 2004.
[29]  M. P. Rayman, “Food-chain selenium and human health: emphasis on intake,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 254–268, 2008.
[30]  G. J. Judson and D. J. Reuter, Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual, South Australia Research & Development Institute (SARDI), Urrbrae, South Australia, 1998.
[31]  G. H. Lyons, J. C. R. Stangoulis, and R. D. Graham, “Tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to high soil and solution selenium levels,” Plant and Soil, vol. 270, no. 1, pp. 179–188, 2005.
[32]  J. D. Rosen, “A Review of the nutrition claims made by proponents of organic food,” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 270–277, 2010.
[33]  K. Nakamuro, K. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, T. Hasegawa, and Y. Sayato, “Comparison of methylated selenium metabolites in rats after oral administration of various selenium compounds,” Japanese Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 1482–1489, 1997.
[34]  T. Hasegawa, M. Mihara, K. Nakamuro, and Y. Sayato, “Mechanisms of selenium methylation and toxicity in mice treated with selenocystine,” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 71, no. 1-2, pp. 31–38, 1996.
[35]  Y. G. Zhu, E. A. H. Pilon-Smits, F. J. Zhao, P. N. Williams, and A. A. Meharg, “Selenium in higher plants: understanding mechanisms for biofortification and phytoremediation,” Trends in Plant Science, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 436–442, 2009.
[36]  G. Lyons, I. Ortiz-Monasterio, J. Stangoulis, and R. Graham, “Selenium concentration in wheat grain: is there sufficient genotypic variation to use in breeding?” Plant and Soil, vol. 269, no. 1-2, pp. 369–380, 2005.
[37]  M. H. Eurola, P. I. Ekholm, M. E. Ylinen, P. E. Koivistoinen, and P. T. Varo, “Selenium in finish foods after beginning the use of selenate-supplemented fertilisers,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 56, pp. 57–70, 1991.
[38]  M. R. Broadley, J. Alcock, J. Alford et al., “Selenium biofortification of high-yielding winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by liquid or granular Se fertilisation,” Plant and Soil, vol. 332, no. 1, pp. 5–18, 2010.
[39]  M. Eurola, V. Hietaniemi, M. Kontturi et al., “Selenium content of Finnish oats in 1997–1999: effect of cultivars and cultivation techniques,” Agricultural and Food Science, vol. 13, no. 1-2, pp. 46–53, 2004.
[40]  I. Bertrand, R. E. Holloway, R. D. Armstrong, and M. J. McLaughlin, “Chemical characteristics of phosphorus in alkaline soils from southern Australia,” Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 61–76, 2003.
[41]  M. A. Bowker, J. Belnap, D. W. Davidson, and S. L. Phillips, “Evidence for micronutrient limitation of biological soil crusts: importance to arid-lands restoration,” Ecological Applications, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1941–1951, 2005.
[42]  H. Hartikainen, “Biogeochemistry of selenium and its impact on food chain quality and human health,” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 309–318, 2005.
[43]  A. D. Robson, N. E. Longnecker, and L. D. Osborne, “Effects of heterogeneous nutrient supply on root growth and nutrient uptake in relation to nutrient supply on duplex soils,” Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 879–886.
[44]  W. H. Schlesinger, J. F. Reynolds, G. L. Cunningham et al., “Biological feedbacks in global desertification,” Science, vol. 247, no. 4946, pp. 1043–1048, 1990.
[45]  Z. Rengel, G. D. Batten, and D. E. Crowley, “Agronomic approaches for improving the micronutrient density in edible portions of field crops,” Field Crops Research, vol. 60, no. 1-2, pp. 27–40, 1999.
[46]  H. F. Li, S. P. McGrath, and F. J. Zhao, “Selenium uptake, translocation and speciation in wheat supplied with selenate or selenite,” New Phytologist, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 92–102, 2008.
[47]  P. Pathak, K. L. Sahrawat, S. P. Wani, R. C. Sachan, and R. Sudi, “Opportunities for water harvesting and supplemental irrigation for improving rainfed agriculture in semi-arid areas,” in Rainfed Agriculture: Unlocking the Potential. Comprehensive Assessment of Water in Agriculture Series, S. P. Wani, J. Rockstr?m, and T. Oweis, Eds., vol. 7, pp. 197–221, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 2009.
[48]  A. Bationo, J. Kihara, V. Vanlauwe, J. Kimetu, B. S. Waswa, and K. L. Sahrawat, “Integrated nutrient managemenr: concepts and experience form Sub-Saharan Africa,” in Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Crop Production, M. S. Auklakh and C. A. Grant, Eds., pp. 467–521, The Haworth Press-Taylor and Francis, New York, NY, USA, 2008.
[49]  A. D. Sparrow, M. H. Friedel, and D. J. Tongway, “Degradation and recovery processes in arid grazing lands of central Australia. Part 3: implications at landscape scale,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 349–360, 2003.
[50]  N. E. Spencer and S. M. Siegel, “Effects of sulfur and selenium oxyanions on Hg-toxicity in turnip seed germination,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 423–427, 1978.
[51]  S. H. Van Dorst and P. J. Peterson, “Selenium speciation in the soil solution and its relevance to plant uptake,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 35, pp. 601–605, 1984.
[52]  V. V. Kuznetsov, V. P. Kholodova, V. V. Kuznetsov, and B. A. Yagodin, “Selenium regulates the water status of plants exposed to drought,” Dokaldy Biological Sciences, vol. 390, no. 1–6, pp. 266–268, 2003.
[53]  M. A. Elrashidi, D. C. Adriano, and W. L. Lindsay, “Solubility, speciation and transformations of selenium in soils,” in Selenium in Agriculture and the Environment, L. W. Jacobs, Ed., Special Publication Number 23, pp. 51–63, SSSA, Madison, Wis, USA, 1989.
[54]  M. S. Fan, F. J. Zhao, P. R. Poulton, and S. P. McGrath, “Historical changes in the concentrations of selenium in soil and wheat grain from the Broadbalk experiment over the last 160 years,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 389, no. 2-3, pp. 532–538, 2008.
[55]  R. K. Bastian, “Interpreting science in the real world for sustainable land application,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 174–183, 2005.
[56]  A. Fernández-Martínez and L. Charlet, “Selenium environmental cycling and bioavailability: a structural chemist point of view,” Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 81–110, 2009.
[57]  J. H. Park, D. Lamb, P. Paneerselvam, G. Choppala, N. Bolan, and J. W. Chung, “Role of organic amendments on enhanced bioremediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 185, no. 2-3, pp. 549–574, 2011.
[58]  A. F. ?gaard, T. A. Sogn, and S. Eich-Greatorex, “Effect of cattle manure on selenate and selenite retention in soil,” Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 39–48, 2006.
[59]  M. P. Rayman, H. G. Infante, and M. Sargent, “Food-chain selenium and human health: spotlight on speciation,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 238–253, 2008.
[60]  W. T. Frankenberger Jr. and U. Karlson, “Soil management factors affecting volatilization of selenium from dewatered sediments,” Geomicrobiology Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 265–278, 1994.
[61]  W. T. Frankenberger Jr. and U. Karlson, “Volatilization of selenium from a dewatered seleniferous sediment: a field study,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology, vol. 14, no. 3-4, pp. 226–232, 1995.
[62]  M. Flury, W. T. Frankenberger Jr., and W. A. Jury, “Long-term depletion of selenium from Kesterson dewatered sediments,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 198, no. 3, pp. 259–270, 1997.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus