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Screening of Viral Pathogens from Pediatric Ileal Tissue Samples after Vaccination

DOI: 10.1155/2014/720585

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In 2010, researchers reported that the two US-licensed rotavirus vaccines contained DNA or DNA fragments from porcine circovirus (PCV). Although PCV, a common virus among pigs, is not thought to cause illness in humans, these findings raised several safety concerns. In this study, we sought to determine whether viruses, including PCV, could be detected in ileal tissue samples of children vaccinated with one of the two rotavirus vaccines. A broad spectrum, novel DNA detection technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), was utilized, and confirmation of viral pathogens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted. The LLMDA technology was recently used to identify PCV from one rotavirus vaccine. Ileal tissue samples were analyzed from 21 subjects, aged 15–62 months. PCV was not detected in any ileal tissue samples by the LLMDA or PCR. LLMDA identified a human rotavirus A from one of the vaccinated subjects, which is likely due to a recent infection from a wild type rotavirus. LLMDA also identified human parechovirus, a common gastroenteritis viral infection, from two subjects. Additionally, LLMDA detected common gastrointestinal bacterial organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Streptococcaceae families from several subjects. This study provides a survey of viral and bacterial pathogens from pediatric ileal samples, and may shed light on future studies to identify pathogen associations with pediatric vaccinations. 1. Introduction Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children [1]. Prior to the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, rotavirus infection was estimated to cause approximately 2.7 million cases of severe gastroenteritis in children, almost 60,000 hospitalizations, and around 37 deaths each year in the USA alone [2]. Three vaccines against rotavirus have been developed: Rotashield (Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines and Pediatrics, [3]), RotaTeq (Merck, [4]), and Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline, [5]). Rotashield, a rhesus-based tetravalent rotavirus vaccine, was recommended for routine vaccination of US infants in 1999 [6] but was withdrawn from the US market within 1 year of its introduction because of its association with intussusception [7]. RotaTeq, a human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine [8], was recommended for vaccination of US infants in 2006 [9] with 3 doses administered orally at ages 2, 4, and 6 months [10]. In 2008, Rotarix, a monovalent vaccine based on an attenuated human rotavirus [11], was licensed in the USA for pediatric use as a 2-dose series and

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