The raw and modified versions of two nonedible vegetable oils, Pongam (Pogammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas), and a commercially available branded mineral oil are used as straight cutting fluids for turning AA 6061 to assess cutting forces. Minimum quantity lubrication is utilized for the supply of cutting fluids. Cutting and thrust forces are measured. Cutting power is determined for various cutting speeds, depths of cut, and feed rates. Also, drilling is performed on the material to understand the material removal rate (MRR) under these oils. The performances of vegetable oils are compared to mineral oil. A noticeable reduction in cutting forces is observed under the Jatropha family of oils compared to mineral oil. Further, better material removal rate is seen under both the vegetable oils and their versions compared to under petroleum oil for the range of thrust forces. 1. Introduction Cutting forces are considered as important parameters in turning operation, and they dictate the power required for machining . The cutting forces influence the deformation of the workpiece machined its dimensional accuracy, chip formation, tool wear, surface roughness, and machining system stability. Higher magnitudes of forces lead to distortion in workpiece, low dimensional accuracy, faster tool wear, poor surface finish, and undesirable vibrations. Cutting forces generated mainly depend on the depth of cut, cutting speed and type of cutting fluid. As the depth of cut increases, magnitudes of forces also increase. However, increase in cutting speeds reduces the magnitude of forces. Further, cutting fluids with high lubricity, high film boiling point, and quick wetting and spreading and friction reduction at extreme pressure properties reduce cutting forces significantly . Metalworking fluids are extensively used in machining operations. There are several types of metalworking fluids (MWFs), which may be used to carry out such tasks . The majority of the MWFs are mineral oil-based fluids. These fluids increase productivity and the quality of manufacturing operations by cooling and lubricating during metal cutting processes . The consumption of MWFs is increasing in machining industry due to their advantages. As cutting fluids are complex in their composition, they may be irritant or allergic. Even microbial toxins are generated by bacteria and fungi present, particularly in water-soluble cutting fluids , which are more harmful to the operators. To overcome these challenges, various alternatives to petroleum-based MWFs are currently being
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