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Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Spilanthes acmella: A Review

DOI: 10.1155/2013/423750

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Abstract:

Spilanthes acmella is an important medicinal plant, found in tropical and subtropical countries mainly India and South America. Popularly, it is known as toothache plant which reduces the pain associated with toothaches and can induce saliva secretion. Various extracts and active metabolites from various parts of this plant possess useful pharmacological activities. Literature survey proposed that it has multiple pharmacological actions, which include antifungal, antipyretic, local anaesthetic, bioinsecticide, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, analgesic, pancreatic lipase inhibitor, antimicrobial, antinociception, diuretic, vasorelaxant, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, toothache relieve and anti-inflammatory effects. This review is elaborately describing the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of this plant. This review would assist researchers to search scientific information in the future. 1. Introduction The increasing demand on herbal medicines and their acceptance in international market because of potent pharmacological potential and high therapeutic value have been proving to be real blessing to the people. However, efforts are needed to explore, standardise, and validate ayurvedic medicines for their potency, safety, and efficacy in order to bring them to market as main line therapeutics. Spilanthes acmella refers to the important medicinal plant distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions around the world with rich source of therapeutic and medicinal constituents. The main constituents, namely, “spilanthol” and “acmellonate”, are sometimes used to reduce the pain associated with toothaches and can induce saliva secretion [1, 2]. Other important traditional uses of this herb are the following: treatment of rheumatism, as a sialagogue for stammering, tongue paralysis, antipyretic, sore throat, and gum infections [3], and as an antipyretie herb. Spilanthes acmella has been well documented for its uses as spices, as antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antimalarial, treatment, and as remedy for toothache, flu, cough, rabies diseases, and tuberculosis [2, 4]. 2. Traditional Uses This plant is very popular among the ancient tribal community; special food item is prepared from this plant in religious festival. The poor people offered this plant along with the “Ajeng Dues” in Dobur Uie [5]. In particular, this plant is famous as a folklore remedy for toothache and for throat and gum infections [6]. The flowers are crushed and applied at the site of toothache, particularly in “Irula tribe of Hasanur

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