Curcuma longa is widely known for its anti-inflammatory activity in traditional system of medicine for centuries and has been scientifically validated extensively. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of curcuminoids and oil-free aqueous extract (COFAE) of C. longa and compare it with that of curcuminoids and turmerones (volatile oil), the bioactive components of C. longa that are proven for the anti-inflammatory potential. The activity against inflammation was evaluated in xylene-induced ear edema, cotton pellet granuloma models in albino Swiss mice and albino Wistar rats, respectively. The results showed that COFAE of C. longa at three dose levels significantly inhibited inflammation in both models, as evidenced by reduction in ear weight and decrease in wet as well as dry weights of cotton pellets, when compared to the vehicle control. The COFAE of C. longa showed considerable anti-inflammatory effects against acute and chronic inflammation and the effects were comparable to those of curcuminoids and turmerones. 1. Introduction Inflammation is a transitory biological response of the tissues to harmful stimuli such as injury, exogenous and endogenous antigens, intended to clear or eliminate the stimulus and repair the injured tissue ultimately resulting in regeneration and returning to homeostasis . Though inflammation is a positive defense mechanism of the body, dysregulated and prolonged inflammatory reaction has been well recognized as underlying cause for several disorders, namely, diabetes, allergies, atherosclerosis, obesity, cancer, and pain. Moreover, inflammation dysfunction leading to chronic diseases is contributing to increased health care cost to the society [2, 3]. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, and immunosuppressant drugs that have been used conventionally against all forms of inflammatory conditions  are associated with adverse effects like ulceration, perforation, gastric irritation, haematochezia , angioedema, hepatic failure, headache, hemolytic anemia, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, immunodeficiency-related problems, and others . Considering these potential adverse effects of these drugs and their limited ability to provide long-term remission, complementary and alternative medicinal products that are generally considered safe are continuously being explored for their anti-inflammatory potential . Curcuma longa Linn. (Turmeric) belonging to Zingiberaceae family has been widely used as medicine, condiment, and cosmetic worldwide [8, 9] and valued as a
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